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REFERENCES Beyea J. Greenland S. The importance of specifying the underlying biological model in estimating the probability of causation. Health Phys 76:269-274, 1999. Carlin BP, Chib S. Bayesian model choice via Markov chain Monte Carlo. JRSS B 57:473-84, 1995. Carlin BP, Louis TA. Bayes and Empirical Bayes Methods for Data Analysis. New York: Chapman and Hall, page 3, 1996. DOT (Department of Justice) Final Report of the Radiation Exposure Compensation Act Committee. Submitted to Human Radiation Interagency Working Group. Department of Justice, 1996. DerSimonian R. Laird N. Meta-analysis in clinical trials. Controlled Clinical Trials 7: 177-188, 1986. Fears TR, Scotto J. Changes in skin cancer morbidity between 1971-72 and 1977-78. J Nat Cancer Inst 69:365-370, 1982. Glass AG, Hoover R. The emerging epidemic of melanoma and squamous cell skin cancer. J Am Med Assoc 262:2097-2100, 1989. Greenland S. A semi-Bayes approach to the analysis of correlated multiple associations, with an application to an occupational cancer mortality study. Stat Med 11 :219-30, 1992. Greenland S. Methods for epidemiologic analyses of multiple exposures: A review and comparative study of maximum likelihood, preliminary-testing, and empirical Bayes regression. Stat Med 12:717-36, 1993. Greenland S. Second-stage least squares versus penalized quasi-likelihood for fitting hierarchical models in epidemiological analyses. Stat Med 16:515-26, 1997. Greenland S. Relation of probability of causation to relative risk and doubling dose: a methodologic error that has become a social problem. Am J Public Health 89:1166-1169, 1999. Greenland S. Epidemiology, justice, and the probability of causation. Jurimetrics, In press. Groer PG. Probabilistic Causality and Radiogenic Cancers. Proc. Fourth International Radiopharmaceutical Dosimetry Symposium. Oak Ridge, TN: Oak Ridge Associated Universities, 1985. Hougaard P. Harvald B. Holm NV. Measuring the similarities between the lifetimes of adult Danish twins born between 1881-1930. J Am Statist Assoc 87: 17-24, 1992. ICRP (International Commission on Radiological Protection). Genetic susceptibility to cancer. Annals ICRP. 1998, 28 (Publication 79~: 1-157. Karagas MR, Greenberg ER, Spencer SK, Stukel TA, Mott LA. New Hampshire Skin Cancer Study Group. Increase in incidence rates of basal cell and squamous cell skin cancer in New Hampshire, USA. Int J Cancer 81 :555-559, 1999. Laplace PS de. Memoire sur la probabilite des causes par les evenemens. Memoires de Mathematique et de Physique, Presentes a l'Academie Royal des Sciences, par divers Savans et lus dans ses Assemblees, Tome Sixieme, pp. 621-656. (Reprinted in Laplace's Oeuvres Completes, 8, pp. 27-65), 1774. Lindley D. Making Decisions. Second Edition. New York, NY: John Wiley and Sons, 1985. 46
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Madigan DM, Raftery AK. Mode! selection and accounting for model uncertainty in 'graphical models using Occam's window. ~ Am Statist Assoc 89:1535-46, 1994. Miller DE, Weinstock MA. Nonmelanoma skin cancer in the United States: incidence. ~ Am Acad Dermatol 30:774-77S, 1994. NCRP (National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements). Uncertainties in Fatal Cancer Risk Estimates Used in Radiation Protection. National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements. NCRP Report No. 126. Bethesda, MD, 1997. NIH (National Institutes of Health). Rall JE, Beebe GW, Hoel DO, Jablon S. Land CE, Nygaard OF, Upton AC, Yalow RS, Zeve VH. Report of the National Institutes of Health Ad Hoc Working Group to Develop Radioepidemiology Tables. National Institute of Health, Bethesda Maryland, 355 pp., 1985. Nichols KE, Levitz S. Shannon KE, Wahrer DC, Bell DW, Chang G. HegUe S. Neuberg D, Shahnan T. Tarbell NI, Mauch P. Ishioka C, Haber DA, Diller L. Heterozygous germline ATM mutations do not contribute to radiation-associated maTignancies after HodgPin's disease. ~ Clin Onco] 17:1259, 1999. NRC (National Research Council) Oversight Committee on Radioepidemiological Tables. Assigned Share for Radiation as a Cause of Cancer. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1984. NRC (National Research Council) Committee on the Biological Effects of ionizing Radiations. Health Effects of Exposure to Radon: BEIR VI. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1999. Pear! J. Causality: Models, Reasoning and Inference. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, pp. 283-308, 2000. Robins I, GreenTand S. The probability of causation under a stochastic model for individual risk. Biometrics45: Il25-~138, 1989. Robins I, GreenIand S. Estimatibility and estimation of expected years of life lost due to a hazardous exposure. Stat Med 10: 79-93, 1991. Ron E, Modan B, Preston D, Alfandary E, Stovall M, Boice J. Radiation-induced skin carcinomas ofthe head and neck. Radiat Res 125:318-325, 1991. Ron E, Lubin ~H, Shore RE, Mabuchi K, Modan B, Pottern EM, Schneider AB, Tucker MA, Boice ID Jr. Thyroid cancer after exposure to external radiation: a pooled analysis of seven studies. Radiat Res 141: 259-277, 1995. Ron E, Preston DE, Kishikawa M, Kobuke T, Iseki T, Tokuoka S, Tokunaga M, Mabuchi K Skin tumor risk among atomic-bomb survivors in Japan. Cancer Caus Cont 9:393-401 1998. Scotto I, Fears T, Fraumeni J. Incidence of nonmelanoma skin cancer in the United States. In: U.S. Dept. Health and Human Services: 113 pp. Vol NIH Publ. No. 83-2433, 1983. Scotto I, Kopf A, Urbach F. Non-melanoma skin cancer among caucasians in four areas of the United States. Cancer 34: 1333-1338, 1974. Shahnan TD, Levitz S, Nixon A], Gibans LA, Nichols KE, Bell DW, Tshioka C, Tsselbacher KT, Gelman R, Garb er I, HaIris JR, Haber DA. Prevalence of germline truncating mutations in ATM in women with a second breast cancer after radiation therapy for a contralateral tumor. Genes Chromosomes Cancer 27: 124-129, 2000. 47
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Shore R. Albert R. Reed M, Harley N. Pasternack B. Skin cancer incidence among children irradiated for ringworm of the scalp. Radiat Res ~ 00: ~ 92-204, ~ 984. Thomas DC. Pro: The probability of causation can be used in an equitable manner to resolve radiation tort claims and design compensation schemes (Abstract) ~ ' ~ T I-- - ----I --a ----- A- -a _ ,~ Radiat Res, In press. Thomas DI, Salmon it, Antell BA. Revised technical basis for the BNFL/UKAEA compensation agreement for radiation linked diseases. ~ Radio} Prot ~ ~ :l ~ I-] 16, 1991. Thompson DE, Mabuchi K, Ron E, Soda M, Tokunaga M, Ochikubo S. Sugimoto S. Ikeda T. Terasaki M, Suzuki S. Preston DL. Cancer incidence in atomic bomb survivors. Part IT: Solid tumors, 1958- 1987." Radiat Res 137~2 Suppl): SI7-67, 1994. Witte IS, Greenland S. Haile RW, Bird CL. Hierarchical regression analysis applied to a study of multiple dietary exposures and breast cancer. Epidemic! 5:612-21, 1994. Wong FE, Boice ID Jr, Abramson DH, Tarone RE, Kleinerman RA, Stovall M, Goldman MB, Seddon IM, Tarbell N. Fraumeni IF Jr, Li FP. Cancer incidence after retinoblastoma: radiation dose and sarcoma risk. lAMA 278:1262-1267, 1997. 48
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