method (one that could be used to accomplish the goals of the animal use proposal), the written narrative should justify why this alternative was not used.

The written narrative for federally mandated animal testing (for example, testing product safety/efficacy/potency) need only to include a citation of the appropriate government agency's regulation and guidance documents. Mandating agency guidelines should be consulted since they may provide alternatives (for example, refinements such as humane endpoints or replacements such as the Murine Local Lymph Node Assay) that are not included in the Code of Federal Regulations. If a mandating agency-accepted alternative is not used, the principal investigator should explain the reason in the written narrative.

Alternatives should be considered in the planning phase of the animal use proposal. When a proposal is modified during its performance, significant changes are subject to prior review by the IACUC, including the review of the implications of those changes concerning the availability of alternatives. Although additional attempts to identify alternatives or alternative methods are not required by Animal Care at the time of each annual review of the animal protocol, Animal Care would normally expect the principal investigator to reconsider alternatives at least once every 3 years, consistent with the triennial review requirements of the Public Health Service Policy (IV,C,5).

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