elements operate in different directions, rather than building and supporting a uniform, cohesive, and proactive program of pain and distress management.

REFERENCES

Carstens E., and G.P. Moberg. 2000. Recognizing pain and distress in laboratory animals. ILAR J 41: 62-71.

Flecknell P. A. 1994. Refinement of animal use— assessment and alleviation of pain and distress. Lab Anim 28: 222-231.

Line W., K.W. Morgan, H. Markowitz, and S. Strong. 1989. Heart rate and activity of rhesus monkeys in response to routine events. Lab Primate News 28: 9-12.

Morton D.B., and P.H.M. Griffiths. 1985. Guidelines on the recognition of pain, distress and discomfort in experimental animals and an hypothesis for assessment. Vet Rec 116: 431-436.

NRC [National Research Council.] 1992. Recognition and Alleviation of Pain and Distress in Laboratory Animals . Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.

NRC [National Research Council.] 1996. Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals. 7th ed. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.

Novak M.A., and S.J. Suomi. 1988. Psychological well-being of primates in captivity. Am Psychol 43: 765-773.

Sanford J., R. Ewbank, V. Molony, W.D. Tavenor, and O. Uvarov. 1986. Guidelines for the recognition and assessment of pain in animals. Vet Rec 118: 334-338.

Soma L.R. 1987. Assessment of animal pain in experimental animals. Lab Anim Sci 37: 71-74.

Stafleu F.R., E. Rivas, T. Rivas, J. Vorstenbosch, F.R. Heeger, and A.C. Beynen. 1992. The use of analogous reasoning for assessing discomfort in laboratory animals. Anim Welfare 1: 77-84.

Wallace J., J. Sanford, M.W. Smith, and K.V. Spencer. 1990. The assessment and control of the severity of scientific procedures on laboratory animals. Lab Anim 24: 97-130.

QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS

DR. COUTO (Marcelo Couto, Scripps Institute and AALAS): Will AAALAC encourage institutions to use certified behaviorists to evaluate their enrichment programs, or will they trust amateurs as well?

DR. BAYNE: Although I am not here to speak on behalf of AAALAC, I am trying to discourage institutions from relying on amateurs without giving them appropriate training. There are many behaviorists who are not laboratory animal specialists. AAALAC looks at an institution 's processes and at whether the outcomes conform with Guide recommendations and the other referenced resources that we list on our Web site. The Council does, in fact, encounter instances about which they feel compelled to comment, either as a mandatory item or as a suggestion for improvement regarding an institution's program of pain and distress management. They frequently include their observations on pain and distress management when they comment on the IACUC's operations.

DR. TAYLOR (James Taylor, NIH): I would only clarify that in looking at an institution's process, we actually look at the results of that process. If they appear to be inadequate or absent, then we are going to communicate with the institution.



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