a protein. After we learn what these proteins are, we will need to learn what they do, both at the cellular level and in the whole animal. In other words, the field of physiological genomics will likely require an even greater use of animals in research.

Again, it will be a shared responsibility in which the increasingly complex animal models of disease will mandate that investigators, veterinarians, and IACUCs have a greater responsibility ensuring animal well-being. Likewise, by helping to reduce regulatory burden and simplifying compliance with regulations in areas such as defining and reporting pain and distress, regulatory agencies will work with institutions to promote good animal care and good science.


DR. GLUCK (John Gluck, Kennedy Institute): I think your messages are very strong and important. You made the statement that regulatory burdens result in fewer advances in science. I have tried to document that premise in a number of different ways and have never been able to find any evidence. On what evidence is your statement based?

DR. HAYWOOD: I think it is Mark Twain who said, “So much conjecture on such a trifling of fact.” I base that association on my0observation that we0are spending more money on compliance issues in universities. We are spending more money on indirect costs to support the research effort, including compliance issues. When that happens, less of the NIH budget is available for research. I use an exercise in logic rather than looking at any numbers because I think those numbers would be very difficult to capture. The cost of doing research has increased tremendously in this country. As a result, the amount of research that actually gets done on a dollar basis has been reduced. Perhaps Dr. Rich will address some of this in his talk later.

DR. RICH (Robert Rich, Emory University School of Medicine): You said it perfectly.

DR. HAYWOOD: This concern is a continuing one for FASEB; for example, whether enough money is going to research versus the support of research.

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