I have attempted to describe a pain classification system that is substantive when viewed retrospectively. It assumes strong veterinary action in prereview, the design of a pilot, and retrospective adjustment of protocols not only so that accurate reporting is performed, but also so that the public can be made more aware of which relief measures were meaningful. This system of veterinary collaboration, pilot design, and retrospective refinements and reporting affords more efficient experimental conduct with more accurate reporting of results and animal pain classification.


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Banai S., M.T. Jaklitsch, M. Shou, D.F. Lazarous, M. Scheinowitz, S. Biro, S.E. Epstein, and E.F.Unger. 1994. Angiogenic-induced enhancement of collateral blood flow to ischemic myocardium by vascular endothelial growth factor in dogs. Circulation 89: 2183-2189.

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Unger E.F., C.D. Sheffield, and S.E. Epstein. 1991. Heparin promotes the formation of extracardiac to coronary anastomoses in a canine model. Am J Physiol 260(Pt 2): H1625-H1634.

Unger E.F., M. Shou, C.D. Sheffield, E. Hodge, M. Jaye, and S.E. Epstein. 1996. Extracardiac to coronary anastomoses support regional left ventricular function in dogs. Am J Physiol 264(Pt 2): H1567-1574.

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