MATERIALS TECHNOLOGIES FOR THE PROCESS INDUSTRIES OF THE FUTURE

Management Strategies and Research Opportunities

Committee on Materials Technologies for Process Industries

National Materials Advisory Board

Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems

National Research Council

NMAB-496

National Academy Press



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MATERIALS TECHNOLOGIES FOR THE PROCESS INDUSTRIES OF THE FUTURE MATERIALS TECHNOLOGIES FOR THE PROCESS INDUSTRIES OF THE FUTURE Management Strategies and Research Opportunities Committee on Materials Technologies for Process Industries National Materials Advisory Board Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems National Research Council NMAB-496 National Academy Press

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MATERIALS TECHNOLOGIES FOR THE PROCESS INDUSTRIES OF THE FUTURE NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competencies and with regard for appropriate balance. This report was prepared with the support of the U.S. Department of Energy, Grant No. DE-FG41-95R110859. However, any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed herein are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the view of DOE. Available in limited suppply from: National Materials Advisory Board National Research Council 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20418 202-334-3505 nmab@nas.edu Copyright 2000 by The National Academy of Sciences . All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America.

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MATERIALS TECHNOLOGIES FOR THE PROCESS INDUSTRIES OF THE FUTURE THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES Advisers to the Nation on Science, Engineering, and Medicine National Academy of Sciences National Academy of Engineering Institute of Medicine National Research Council The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. William Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an advisor to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce Alberts and Dr. William Wulf are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council.

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MATERIALS TECHNOLOGIES FOR THE PROCESS INDUSTRIES OF THE FUTURE This page in the original is blank.

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MATERIALS TECHNOLOGIES FOR THE PROCESS INDUSTRIES OF THE FUTURE COMMITTEE ON MATERIALS TECHNOLOGIES FOR PROCESS INDUSTRIES JOSEPH G. WIRTH (chair), Raychem Corporation (retired), Mt. Shasta, California CORBY G. ANDERSON, University of Montana, Butte ORVILLE HUNTER, JR., A.P. Green Industries, Incorporated (retired), Columbia, Missouri SYLVIA M. JOHNSON, NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California HARRY A. LIPSITT, Wright State University (emeritus), Dayton, Ohio NICHOLAS MONTANARELLI, Ballistic Missile Defense Organization, Washington, D.C. ANATOLY NEMZER, FMC Corporation, Princeton, New Jersey HAROLD W. PAXTON, Carnegie-Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania PETER H. PFROMM, Institute of Paper Science and Technology, Atlanta, Georgia FREDERIC J-Y QUAN, Corning Incorporated, Corning, New York MICHAEL P. THOMAS, Alcan Aluminum Corporation, Farmington Hills, Michigan SHELDON M. WIEDERHORN, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland National Materials Advisory Board Staff ARUL MOZHI, Acting Director and Senior Program Officer TERI THOROWGOOD, Research Associate PAT A. WILLIAMS, Administrative Assistant Government Liaisons MERRILL SMITH, U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, D.C. CHARLES A. SORRELL, U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, D.C.

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MATERIALS TECHNOLOGIES FOR THE PROCESS INDUSTRIES OF THE FUTURE NATIONAL MATERIALS ADVISORY BOARD EDGAR A. STARKE (chair) University of Virginia, Charlottesville EARL DOWELL, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina EDWARD C. DOWLING, Cleveland Cliffs, Inc., Cleveland, Ohio THOMAS EAGAR, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge HAMISH L. FRASER, Ohio State University, Columbus ALASTAIR M. GLASS, Bell Laboratories, Lucent Technologies, Murray Hill, New Jersey MARTIN E. GLICKSMAN, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York JOHN A.S. GREEN, Aluminum Association, Inc., Washington, D.C. THOMAS S. HARTWICK, TRW, Redmond, Washington ALLAN J. JACOBSON, University of Houston, Houston, Texas MICHAEL JAFFE, New Jersey Institute of Technology and Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey, Newark SYLVIA M. JOHNSON, NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California SHEILA F. KIA, General Motors Research and Development Center, Warren, Michigan LISA KLEIN, Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey, Piscataway HARRY A. LIPSITT, Wright State University (emeritus), Dayton, Ohio ALAN G. MILLER, Boeing Commercial Airplane Group, Seattle, Washington ROBERT C. PFAHL, JR., Motorola, Schaumburg, Illinois JULIA PHILLIPS, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico HENRY J. RACK, Clemson University, Clemson, South Carolina KENNETH L. REIFSNIDER, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg T.S. SUDARSHAN, Materials Modification, Inc., Fairfax, Virginia JULIA WEERTMAN, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois National Materials Advisory Board Staff ARUL MOZHI, Acting Director

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MATERIALS TECHNOLOGIES FOR THE PROCESS INDUSTRIES OF THE FUTURE Preface The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Industrial Technology (OIT) requested that the National Research Council, through the National Materials Advisory Board (NMAB), conduct a study to evaluate its crosscutting materials programs. The committee on Materials Technologies for Process Industries was established to review OIT’s materials programs and management strategies, identify research and application needs, and identify barriers to commercialization. In addition, the committee was asked to recommend criteria for selecting and prioritizating future research. The recommendations reflect OIT’s transition to the “market-pull”management strategy recently adopted by the Industries of the Future (IOF) Program. The following specific tasks were addressed by the committee through a three-day workshop: Review the progress and accomplishments of OIT’s crosscutting materials technology programs. Describe program-management strategies, such as criteria for project selection, plans for commercialization, and industry involvement. Describe successful and unsuccessful efforts by OIT to develop commercial applications for new or advanced materials technologies. Identify research opportunities or potential future applications in the OIT target industries. Recommend criteria for selecting and prioritizing projects for further research and development of new or advanced materials technologies. The committee met with DOE program managers and industry representatives in Washington, D.C., on September 15, 16, and 17, 1999, to discuss progress, accomplishments, and strategies of OIT’s materials programs. This report includes reviews of workshop presentations and offers recommendations for strengthening and focusing OIT’s programs. The chair thanks the committee members for their participation in the workshop and their effort and dedication in preparing this report. The chair also thanks the

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MATERIALS TECHNOLOGIES FOR THE PROCESS INDUSTRIES OF THE FUTURE speakers and participants in the workshop, as well as the staff of NMAB, especially Arul Mozhi, for arranging the workshop and providing substantial assistance in the preparation and publication of the committee’s report. Comments and suggestions can be sent via e-mail to NMAB@nas.edu or by fax to (202) 334-3718. JOSEPH G. WIRTH, chair Committee on Materials Technologies for Process Industries

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MATERIALS TECHNOLOGIES FOR THE PROCESS INDUSTRIES OF THE FUTURE Acknowledgments The Committee on Materials Technologies for Process Industries would like to thank all of the participants in the workshop, which was the principal data-gathering session for this study. The information and insight from the participants were invaluable to the committee. The committee would like to thank those individuals who prepared presentations for the workshop. Presenters included: Brent Hiskey, University of Arizona; Egon Wolff, Caterpillar, Inc; Mark J. Rigali, Advanced Ceramics Research, Inc.; Peter Pfromm, Institute of Paper Science and Technology; Homi Bhedwar, Dupont; Frederic Quan, Corning, Inc; John Green, The Aluminum Association; Jeffrey Smith, University of Missouri-Rolla; Raymond Donahue, Mercury Marine; George Mochnal, Forging Industry Association; Robert Gaster, John Deere and Company; Steve Furey, Sandusky International; William Werst, U.S. Advanced Ceramics Association; Phillip Craig, AlliedSignal Composites, Inc; Rich Goettler, McDermott Technologies; James Schienle, AlliedSignal Ceramic Components; Peter Angelini and Michael Karnitz, Oak Ridge National Laboratory; and William Parks, Charles Sorrell, Merrill Smith, Patricia Hoffman, Sara Dillich, and Toni Marechaux, U.S. Department of Energy Office of Industrial Technology. The committee is particularly grateful to Charles Sorrell and Merrill Smith of the Office of Industrial Technology for their technical assistance and Jim Quinn and Denise Swink of the Office of Industrial Technology for their support. This report has been reviewed by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the NRC’s Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the authors and the NRC in making the published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The content of the review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their participation in the review of this report: Lisa Klein, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey; Jay Lee, University of

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MATERIALS TECHNOLOGIES FOR THE PROCESS INDUSTRIES OF THE FUTURE Wisconsin-Milwaukee; Francis McMichael, Carnegie-Mellon University; and John Green, The Aluminum Association. Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Norman Gjostein, Ford Motor Company (retired), appointed by the Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems, who was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution. Finally, the panel gratefully acknowledges the support of the staff of the National Research Council and National Materials Advisory Board (NMAB), including Arul Mozhi, study director; Thomas E. Munns, former NMAB associate director (now at ARINC); Teri Thorowgood, research associate; Patricia Williams, senior project assistant; and Carol R. Arenberg, editor.