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OCR for page 51
Glossary alkane activation the selective functionalization of the carbonhydrogen bond in paraffins to make either a useful hydrocarbon product or an organometallic intermediate alkylation technology catalytic processes for reacting paraffins with olefins to produce higher molecular-weight paraffins asymmetric and chiral synthesis the synthesis of molecules with one or more asymmetric (synonymous with chiral) centers alternative resource a noncrude-oil-based resource atom economy getting higher yields without having to use protecting groups, as well as producing stoichiometric by-products, especially salts (which must usually be disposed of) biomimetic catalyst a synthetic catalytic system that uses biological systems as a model to simulate or reproduce the action or active site of an enzyme (e.g., porphyrins with a macrocycle possessing ternary structure) cofactor regeneration some enzyme reactions require a cofactor, such as nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+), to catalyze a reaction, yielding a reduced cofactor (NADH); the oxidized form of the cofactor may be regenerated by using the reduced cofactor in an NADH-dependent enzyme reaction
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enantiomeric entity an optically active isomer enzyme stability a measure of enzyme resistance to various environmental parameters, both physical and chemical enzyme activity acceleration of reactions by decreasing the free energy of activation fine chemical a high-value, low-volume chemical (e.g., a pharmaceutical) ligand 1. In inorganic chemistry, a molecule or ion that binds to a metal cation to form a complex. 2. In biochemistry, a molecule that binds to a receptor, having a biological effect. macromolecular architecture the three-dimensional topology and structure of large molecules, such as enzymes or polymers olefin polymerization the combination of olefins to produce high molecular-weight polymers racemate a one-to-one mixture of enantiomeric molecules; it has a zero optical rotation regiospecificity specificity for a particular region of a molecule renewable resource a carbon resource available from biological or agricultural sources selective oxidation the oxidation of hydrocarbons to produce oxygenates with minimal side reactions and minimal carbon dioxide formation stereochemistry a description of the three-dimensional spatial relationships between atoms in a molecule stereoisomer two or more molecules with identical molecular formulas but different spatial orientations
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stereospecificity specificity for a particular stereoisomer stereoselectivity preference for a particular stereoisomer, commonly applied to molecular binding, reaction kinetics, etc. substrate specificity preference for a particular reactant, applied to an enzyme’s preference to react with a particular compound(s) synthetic versatility a synthesis technique generally employing a reagent or catalyst that causes a reaction and has broad applicability thermoplastic elastomer an elastic polymer that softens or melts on heating and becomes rigid again on cooling
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