CATALYTIC PROCESS TECHNOLOGY

Committee on Catalytic Process Technology for Manufacturing Applications

Board on Manufacturing and Engineering Design

Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems

National Research Council

NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS
Washington, D.C.



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CATALYTIC PROCESS TECHNOLOGY Committee on Catalytic Process Technology for Manufacturing Applications Board on Manufacturing and Engineering Design Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C.

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NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competencies and with regard for appropriate balance. This report by the Board on Manufacturing and Engineering Design was conducted with the support of the U.S. Department of Energy, Grant No. DP-FG41-95R110859. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed herein are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the view of the Department of Energy. Available in limited supply from: Board on Manufacturing and Engineering Design 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W. Washington, DC 20418 202-334-3124 bmaed@nas.edu Copyright 2000 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America.

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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES Advisers to the Nation on Science, Engineering, and Medicine National Academy of Sciences National Academy of Engineering Institute of Medicine National Research Council The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. William Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an advisor to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce Alberts and Dr. William Wulf are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council.

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COMMITTEE ON CATALYTIC PROCESS TECHNOLOGY FOR MANUFACTURING APPLICATIONS STANLEY A. GEMBICKI (chair), UOP Corporation, Des Plaines, Illinois RALPH A. DALLA BETTA, Catalytica, Inc., Mountain View, California FRANCIS G. DWYER, Mobil Research and Development Corporation (retired), West Chester, Pennsylvania ROBERT J. FARRAUTO, Engelhard Corporation, Iselin, New Jersey RANDOLPH L. GREASHAM, Merck and Company, Inc., Rahway, New Jersey JAMES F. ROTH, Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. (retired), Sarasota, Florida MARTIN B. SHERWIN, ChemVen Group, Boca Raton, Florida FRANCIS A. VIA, GE Corporate Research and Development Center, Schenectady, New York BARBARA K. WARREN, Union Carbide Corporation, South Charleston, West Virginia JOSEPH R. ZOELLER, Eastman Chemical Company, Kingsport, Tennessee NRC Staff CUNG VU, Study Director TERI G. THOROWGOOD, Research Associate AIDA C. NEEL, Senior Project Assistant JUDITH L. ESTEP, Senior Project Assistant Government Liaison PAUL SCHEIHING, U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, D.C.

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BOARD ON MANUFACTURING AND ENGINEERING DESIGN JOSEPH WIRTH, (chair), Raychem Corporation (retired), Mount Shasta, California F. PETER BOER, Tiger Scientific, Inc., Boynton Beach, Florida JOHN BOLLINGER, University of Wisconsin, Madison HARRY COOK, University of Illinois, Urbana PAMELA DREW, The Boeing Company, Seattle, Washington ROBERT EAGAN, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico EDITH FLANIGEN, UOP Corporation (retired), White Plains, New York JOHN GILLESPIE, JR., University of Delaware, Newark JAMIE HSU, General Motors Corporation, Warren, Michigan RICHARD KEGG, Milacron, Inc. (retired), Cincinnati, Ohio JAY LEE, United Technologies Corporation, East Hartford, Connecticut JAMES MATTICE, Universal Technology Corporation, Dayton, Ohio CAROLYN MEYERS, North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State University, Greensboro JOSEPH MIZE, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater FRIEDRICH PRINZ, Stanford University, Palo Alto, California JAMES RICE, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge JOHN STENBIT, TRW, Inc., Fairfax, Virginia DALIBOR F. VRSALOVIC, Intel Corporation, Santa Clara, California JOEL SAMUEL YUDKEN, AFL-CIO, Washington, D.C. NRC Staff ARUL MOZHI, Acting Director PATRICK J. DOYLE, Staff Officer TERI G. THOROWGOOD, Research Associate JUDITH L. ESTEP, Senior Administrative Assistant

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Preface The chemical industry has a long history of combining theory (science) and practice (engineering) to create new and useful products. Catalysis has been, and continues to be, a key to the development and growth of this large, diverse industry. This report builds on previous studies, especially Technology Vision 2020, prepared in 1996 by a group of chemical industry organizations, as well as the collective industrial experience of committee members and presentations by representatives of industry and the national laboratories. The report provides an overview of current research on catalysis and identifies areas for future research and development with the potential for significant industrial impact. I wish to thank the members of the committee for their hard work, enthusiasm, and diversity of thought. Innovation in this important area will depend on creative interchanges of ideas in the scientific community. The combined efforts of the entire catalysis community will be necessary to meet future technological challenges. Stanley A. Gembicki, chair Committee on Catalytic Process Technology for Manufacturing Applications

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Acknowledgments The Committee on Catalytic Process Technology for Manufacturing Applications would like to thank the following individuals for their presentations: James Quinn, Office of Industrial Technologies; Brian Valentine, Office of Industrial Technologies; James Stevens, Dow Chemical Company; Robert Dorsch, E.I. du Pont de Nemours and Company; Thomas Baker, Los Alamos Laboratory; Tom Verhoeven, Merck and Company, Inc.; and Ronald Heck, Engelhard Corporation. This report has been reviewed by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the NRC’s Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the authors and the NRC in making the published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets the institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The content of the review comments and draft manuscript remains confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their participation in the review of this report: Thomas Baker, Los Alamos National Laboratory; Norman Blank, Sika Corporation; Scott Han, Rohm and Haas; Lanny Schmidt, University of Minnesota; Jeffrey Siirola, Eastman Chemical Company; Gabor Somorjai, University of California, Berkeley; Gregory Whited, Genencor International, Inc.; and Ronald Yates, Dow Chemical Company. Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by George Keller, appointed by the Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems, who was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution. Finally, the committee gratefully acknowledges the support of the staff of the Board on Manufacturing and Engineering Design, including Cung Vu, study

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director; Teri G. Thorowgood, research associate; Judith L. Estep, and Aida C. Neel, senior project assistants. The report was edited by Carol R. Arenberg, Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems.