TABLE 7–3 Sediment Management Options and Associated Risks

Option

Component

Goal

Feasibility Cost

Risk of Implementing

Short-Term Risk

Long-Term Risk

Socioeconomic

Institutional controls

Sever exposure pathways

 

Source control

 

Eliminate source

In situ management

Natural attenuation

Containment and degradation

Thin-layer capping

Containment

Thick-layer capping

Containment

Ex situ management

Mechanical dredging

Removal

Hydraulic dredging

Removal

Dry excavation

Removal

Pretreatment

Dewatering, size separation

Treatment and disposal

Separation or destruction

  • The first goal of any management activity for PCB-contaminated sediments should be to identify and, where possible, control the point and nonpoint sources that have caused and will continue to cause the contamination problem. The sources include, but are not limited to, run-off from contaminated soils, combined sewer overflows, and atmospheric inputs.

  • Effectively responding to the contaminated sediment at a site generally requires using options that involve multiple technological and institutional components, and the evaluation, screening, and selection of these options must consider all the components, their interrelationships, and their impacts. Seven broad rules govern the analysis of management options:

    1. All sites require a conceptual model of the system, and the interaction of the management options with the sediments and contaminants is required.

    2. The use of mass flows can assist in developing and testing the



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