upon site-specific factors and risks and such conditions as sediment depth and composition, ecosystems, extent of contamination, and the presence of cocontaminants. The array of risks to be assessed are also site-specific and management-option-specific. When selecting a risk-management strategy for a site, decision-makers must be sensitive to affected parties’ views on the short-term and long-term risks, not only from the PCBs themselves but also from the implementation of any management option. Risk tradeoffs might be required to achieve the risk-management goals.


Davies, J.C., 1995. Comparing Environmental Risks: Tools for Setting Government Priorities. Washington, DC: Resources for the Future.

EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1991. Guidance on Oversight of Potentially Responsive Party Remedial Investigations and Feasibility Studies. Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response (OSWER) Directive No. 9835.1(c). [Online]. Available: http://es.epa.gov/oeca/osre/910701-1.html.

EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1997. Waukegan Harbor Area of Concern. Great Lakes Area of Concern. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. [Online]. Available: http://ww.epa.gov/grtlakes/aoc/waukegan.html. [November 21, 1997].

Graham, J.D., and J.K.Hammitt. 1995. Refining the CRA Framework. Pp. 93–109 in: Comparing Environmental Risks: Tools for Setting Government Priorities, J.C.Davies, ed. Washington, DC: Resources for the Future.

Graham, J.D., and J.B.Wiener, eds. 1995. Risk Versus Risk: Tradeoffs in Protecting Health and the Environment. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Muno, W. 1999. A Great Lakes Perspective of Sediment Contamination. U.S. EPA Region 5. Paper presented at Public Meeting Sections, University of Wisconsin at Green Bay, September 28, 1999.

NRC (National Research Council). 1997. Contaminated Sediments in Ports and Waterways: Cleanup Strategies and Technologies. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

PCCRARM (Presidential/Congressional Commission on Risk Assessment and Risk Management). 1997. Framework for Environmental Health Risk Management. Final Report. Washington, DC: The Commission.

Renholds, J. 1998. In Situ Treatment of Contaminated Sediments. Technology Innovation Office, Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C. December. [Online]. Available: www.epa.gov/swertio1/products/renhold.htm.

TERA (Toxicology Excellence for Risk Assessment). 1999. Comparative Dietary Risk: Balancing the Risks and Benefits of Fish Consumption. Final Report. Toxicology Excellence for Risk Assessment, Cincinnati, OH. [Online]. Available: http://www.tera.org/pubs. August.

The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement