A Risk-Management STRATEGY for PCB-Contaminated Sediments

Committee on Remediation of PCB-Contaminated Sediments

Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology

Division on Life and Earth Studies

National Research Council

NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS
Washington, D.C.



The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement



Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.

OCR for page R1
A Risk-Management Strategy for PCB-Contaminated Sediments A Risk-Management STRATEGY for PCB-Contaminated Sediments Committee on Remediation of PCB-Contaminated Sediments Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology Division on Life and Earth Studies National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C.

OCR for page R1
A Risk-Management Strategy for PCB-Contaminated Sediments NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS 2101 Constitution Ave., N.W. Washington, D.C. 20418 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This project was supported by Grant No. R 827175–01 between the National Academy of Sciences and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the view of the organizations or agencies that provided support for this project. International Standard Book Number 0-309-07321-9 Library of Congress Control Number: 2001089191 Additional copies of this report are available from: National Academy Press 2101 Constitution Ave., NW Box 285 Washington, DC 20055 800–624–6242 202–334–3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area) http://www.nap.edu Copyright 2001 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America

OCR for page R1
A Risk-Management Strategy for PCB-Contaminated Sediments THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES National Academy of Sciences National Academy of Engineering Institute of Medicine National Research Council The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. William A.Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I.Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M.Alberts and Dr. William A.Wulf are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council.

OCR for page R1
A Risk-Management Strategy for PCB-Contaminated Sediments This page intentionally left blank.

OCR for page R1
A Risk-Management Strategy for PCB-Contaminated Sediments COMMITTEE ON REMEDIATION OF PCB-CONTAMINATED SEDIMENTS Members JOHN W.FARRINGTON (Chair), Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, MA RAYMOND C.LOEHR (Vice-Chair), University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX ELIZABETH L.ANDERSON, Sciences International, Inc., Alexandria, VA W.FRANK BOHLEN, University of Connecticut, Groton, CT YORAM COHEN, University of California at L.A., Los Angeles, CA KEVIN J.FARLEY, Manhattan College, Riverdale, NY JOHN P.GIESY, JR., Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI DIANE S.HENSHEL, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN STEPHEN U.LESTER, Center for Health, Environment and Justice, Falls Church, VA KONRAD J.LIEGEL, Preston Gates & Ellis, LLP, Seattle, WA PERRY L.MCCARTY, Stanford University, Stanford, CA JOHN L.O’DONOGHUE, Eastman Kodak Company, Rochester, NY JAMES J.OPALUCH, University of Rhode Island, Kingston, RI DANNY D.REIBLE, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA Staff ROBERTA M.WEDGE, Project Director EILEEN N.ABT, Staff Officer MICHELLE C.CATLIN, Staff Officer RUTH E.CROSSGROVE, Editor MIRSADA KARALIC-LONCAREVIC, Information Specialist LUCY V.FUSCO, Project Assistant PAMELA FRIEDMAN, Project Assistant JENNIFER E.SAUNDERS, Project Assistant BRYAN P.SHIPLEY, Project Assistant Sponsor U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY

OCR for page R1
A Risk-Management Strategy for PCB-Contaminated Sediments BOARD ON ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES AND TOXICOLOGY1 Members GORDON ORIANS (Chair), University of Washington, Seattle, WA JOHN DOULL, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS DAVID ALLEN, University of Texas, Austin, TX INGRID C.BURKE, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO THOMAS BURKE, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD GLEN R.CASS, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA WILLIAM L.CHAMEIDES, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA CHRISTOPHER B.FIELD, Carnegie Institute of Washington, Stanford, CA JOHN GERHART, University of California, Berkeley, CA J.PAUL GILMAN, Celera Genomics, Rockville, MD DANIEL S.GREENBAUM, Health Effects Institute, Cambridge, MA BRUCE D.HAMMOCK, University of California, Davis, CA ROGENE HENDERSON, Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute, Albuquerque, NM CAROL HENRY, American Chemistry Council, Arlington, VA ROBERT HUGGETT, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI JAMES F.KITCHELL, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI DANIEL KREWSKI, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON JAMES A.MACMAHON, Utah State University, Logan, UT CHARLES O’MELIA, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD WILLEM F.PASSCHIER, Health Council of the Netherlands, The Hague ANN POWERS, Pace University School of Law, White Plains, NY KIRK SMITH, University of California, Berkeley, CA TERRY F.YOSIE, American Chemistry Council, Arlington, VA Senior Staff JAMES J.REISA, Director DAVID J.POLICANSKY, Associate Director and Senior Program Director for Applied Ecology RAYMOND A.WASSEL, Senior Program Director for Environmental Sciences and Engineering KULBIR BAKSHI, Program Director for the Committee on Toxicology ROBERTA M.WEDGE, Program Director for Risk Analysis K.JOHN HOLMES, Senior Staff Officer 1   This study was planned, overseen, and supported by the Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology.

OCR for page R1
A Risk-Management Strategy for PCB-Contaminated Sediments OTHER REPORTS OF THE BOARD ON ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES AND TOXICOLOGY Toxicological Effects of Methylmercury (2000) Strengthening Science at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency: Research-Management and Peer-Review Practices (2000) Scientific Frontiers in Developmental Toxicology and Risk Assessment (2000) Modeling Mobile-Source Emissions (2000) Toxicological Risks of Selected Flame-Retardant Chemicals (2000) Copper in Drinking Water (2000) Ecological Indicators for the Nation (2000) Waste Incineration and Public Health (1999) Hormonally Active Agents in the Environment (1999) Research Priorities for Airborne Particulate Matter: I. Immediate Priorities and a Long-Range Research Portfolio (1998); II. Evaluating Research Progress and Updating the Portfolio (1999) Ozone-Forming Potential of Reformulated Gasoline (1999) Risk-Based Waste Classification in California (1999) Arsenic in Drinking Water (1999) Brucellosis in the Greater Yellowstone Area (1998) The National Research Council’s Committee on Toxicology: The First 50 Years (1997) Toxicologic Assessment of the Army’s Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Dispersion Tests (1997) Carcinogens and Anticarcinogens in the Human Diet (1996) Upstream: Salmon and Society in the Pacific Northwest (1996) Science and the Endangered Species Act (1995) Wetlands: Characteristics and Boundaries (1995) Biologic Markers (5 reports, 1989–1995) Review of EPA’s Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (3 reports, 1994–1995) Science and Judgment in Risk Assessment (1994) Ranking Hazardous Waste Sites for Remedial Action (1994) Pesticides in the Diets of Infants and Children (1993) Issues in Risk Assessment (1993) Setting Priorities for Land Conservation (1993) Protecting Visibility in National Parks and Wilderness Areas (1993) Dolphins and the Tuna Industry (1992) Hazardous Materials on the Public Lands (1992) Science and the National Parks (1992) Animals as Sentinels of Environmental Health Hazards (1991)

OCR for page R1
A Risk-Management Strategy for PCB-Contaminated Sediments Assessment of the U.S. Outer Continental Shelf Environmental Studies Program, Volumes I–IV (1991–1993) Human Exposure Assessment for Airborne Pollutants (1991) Monitoring Human Tissues for Toxic Substances (1991) Rethinking the Ozone Problem in Urban and Regional Air Pollution (1991) Decline of the Sea Turtles (1990) Copies of these reports may be ordered from the National Academy Press (800) 624–6242 (202) 334–3313 www.nap.edu

OCR for page R1
A Risk-Management Strategy for PCB-Contaminated Sediments Preface The management of PCB-contaminated sediments has been the subject of much scientific enquiry, technical innovation, regulatory confusion, public debate, and litigation. At contaminated sites around the country, management plans have been proposed, implemented, or completed, with varying levels of satisfaction from the involved parties. PCBs have been associated with a variety of risks to humans and ecosystems. To address these myriad risks, Congress and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency asked the National Research Council (NRC) to develop a consistent and clear process for assessing the risks from PCB-contaminated sediments and the risks that might be posed by the various technologies that may be used to manage them. In this report, the Committee on the Remediation of PCB-Contaminated Sediments proposes a framework and guidance for assessing the risks of managing PCB-contaminated sediment. Because of the national attention to this issue and the controversy surrounding management decisions that are pending at several contaminated sites, the committee released the Executive Summary of the report on December 29, 2000, in advance of the full report. The NRC and the committee were aware that many persons were anticipating that this report would recommend a preferred remedial technology for PCB-contaminated sites. However, the committee concluded that such a recommendation could not be made in light of the need to consider site-specific conditions that would affect the efficacy, cost, and risks for each potential remedial technology. The full report provides the detailed documentation and site-specific examples to support the conclusions and recommendations given in the Executive Summary. The committee (whose biographical sketches are given in Appendix A) gratefully acknowledges the many individuals who made presentations to the

OCR for page R1
A Risk-Management Strategy for PCB-Contaminated Sediments committee at its public meetings (a list of these individuals is in Appendix B) and provided background information (a complete list of these materials is in Appendix C). The committee also wishes to thank the following EPA staff: Dennis Timberlake, Office of Research and Development; Timothy Oppelt, Office of Research and Development; Larry Reed, Office of Emergency and Remedial Response; Tudor Davies, Office of Water; and Larry Zaragoza, Office of Emergency and Remedial Response. The Executive Summary and full report have been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the NRC’s Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this report: Steven D.Aust, Biochemistry Center, Utah State University, Logan, Utah; G.Allen Burton, Jr., Institute for Environmental Science, Wright State University, Dayton, Ohio; David E.Daniel, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois; David A.Dzombak, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; Judith T.Kildow, Hancock Institute for Marine Studies, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California; Allan B.Okey, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; Gilbert S. Omenn, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan; Hilary Sigman, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, New Jersey; David E.Williams, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon. Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations, nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Edwin H.Clark II, Washington, DC, and Ronald W.Estabrook, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center. Appointed by the National Research Council, they were responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution. The committee is grateful for the assistance of the NRC staff in preparing the report. Staff members who contributed to this effort are Roberta Wedge, program director for risk analysis; Eileen Abt, staff officer; Michelle Catlin, staff officer; Ruth E.Crossgrove, editor; Lucy Fusco, project assistant; Pamela Friedman, project assistant; Jennifer Saunders, project assistant; Bryan

OCR for page R1
A Risk-Management Strategy for PCB-Contaminated Sediments Shipley, project assistant; and Mirsada Karalic-Loncarevic, information specialist. Finally, I would like to thank all members of the committee for their dedicated efforts throughout the development of this report. John W.Farrington, Chair Committee on the Remediation of PCB-contaminated Sediments

OCR for page R1
A Risk-Management Strategy for PCB-Contaminated Sediments This page intentionally left blank.

OCR for page R1
A Risk-Management Strategy for PCB-Contaminated Sediments Contents     Executive Summary   1 1   Introduction   17      Overview of PCBs in Sediments,   17      The Committee’s Task,   18      The Committee’s Approach,   20      Report Organization,   21      References,   22 2   PCBs in the Environment   23      Defining PCBs,   23      Distribution and Dynamics of PCBs in the Environment,   29      Potential Exposure Pathways,   31      Toxicity of PCBs,   35      Weathering of PCBs,   41      Conclusions and Recommendations,   43      References,   43 3   The Framework   52      Risk-Management Framework,   53      Rationale for and Advantages of the Framework,   60      Outline of the Risk-Management Framework,   62      Conclusions and Recommendations,   66      References,   67

OCR for page R1
A Risk-Management Strategy for PCB-Contaminated Sediments 4   Community Involvement   68      Specific Community Concerns,   69      Defining the Community,   71      Involving the Community,   76      Community Outreach and Education,   85      The Role of Regulatory Agencies,   87      Mechanisms for Involving the Community,   88      Conclusions and Recommendations,   90      References,   92 5   Defining the Problem and Setting Management Goals   96      Defining the Problem,   97      Site Assessment,   110      Setting Risk-Management Goals,   112      Conclusions and Recommendations,   115      References,   115 6.   Analyzing Risks   118      Environmental Risk Assessment,   119      Problem Formulation,   121      Analysis Phase,   124      Risk Characterization,   166      Economic, Social, and Cultural Impacts,   171      Comparative Risk Assessment,   173      Conclusions and Recommendations,   176      References,   178 7.   Assessing Management Options   189      Identifying Options,   190      Evaluating Management Options,   192      Conclusions and Recommendations,   234      References,   237 8.   Making Decisions   242      Regulatory Requirements,   243      Comparative Decision-Making,   246      Framework Considerations,   254      Facilitating the Process,   256      Conclusions and Recommendations,   257      References,   259

OCR for page R1
A Risk-Management Strategy for PCB-Contaminated Sediments 9.   Implementing the Strategy   260      Project Plan,   266      Source Control,   268      Conclusions and Recommendations,   269      References,   269 10.   Evaluating Results   271      Framework Guidance,   271      Reviews of Evaluations of Remedial Actions,   273      Assessment Monitoring,   278      Conclusions and Recommendations,   287      References,   289 Appendix A:   Biographical Information on the Committee on Remediation of PCB-Contaminated Sediments   293 Appendix B:   Participants at Public Sessions   296 Appendix C:   Public Access Materials   298 Appendix D:   Case Studies   319 Appendix E:   PCB Biodegradation   329 Appendix F:   Methods of Analysis of PCBs in Sediments, Water, and Biota   334 Appendix G:   Toxicity of PCBs   363 Appendix H:   Nomenclature of PCBs   428

OCR for page R1
A Risk-Management Strategy for PCB-Contaminated Sediments This page intentionally left blank.

OCR for page R1
A Risk-Management Strategy for PCB-Contaminated Sediments A Risk-Management Strategy for PCB-Contaminated Sediments

OCR for page R1
A Risk-Management Strategy for PCB-Contaminated Sediments This page intentionally left blank.