employee technical assistance and training programs. In 1998, when OSHA’s budget was $336.5 million, the agency reported that states and territories with state plans allocated another $111.3 million to their own programs (OSHSPA, 1999).
In its FY 2001 budget request, OSHA stated that it expected to issue seven standards in FY 2000 and five more FY 2001 (DOL, 2000). For FY 2000, the agency estimated that federal OSHA employees would conduct more than 34,500 inspections and 27,500 consultation visits. State plan personnel would conduct another 55,000 inspections in FY 2000.
OSHA’s enforcement activities include responding to complaints made by employees covered by OSHA and periodically inspecting covered workplaces on a scheduled basis. OSHA’s compliance officers inspect work sites and counsel employers regarding compliance concerns. The reports of these compliance officers provide the basis for regional office personnel to determine whether violations exist and citations should be issued. In 1999, OSHA began a targeted inspection program that focuses on the work sites with the highest injury and illness rates on the basis of the data reported to OSHA (Jeffress, 2000).
Penalties for violations range from zero in the case of de minimus technical violations that do not affect safety or health to $70,000 for the most serious repeated or willful violations. If violations are not corrected within a specified time, a “failure to abate” violation can result in fines of up to $7,000 per day. Appendix E describes enforcement activities and penalties in more detail.
OSHA operates within the boundaries provided by its statute, applicable executive orders, and relevant judicial decisions. The provisions of the 1997 proposed rule on tuberculosis reflect the directions and constraints set by each of these sources. The next chapter compares that rule and the 1994 CDC guidelines on tuberculosis in health care facilities.