References and Bibliography

NOTE: Many of the cited reports and papers by Census Bureau staff are available on the Census Bureau's web site: http://www.census.gov. Other reports related to small-area income and poverty estimates may be obtained by contacting: David Waddington, Division of Housing and Household Economic Statistics, U.S. Bureau of the Census, Washington, D.C. 20233.

Papers that were prepared for the panel—marked by an asterisk (*)—are available from the Committee on National Statistics, 2101 Constitution Ave. NW, Washington, D.C. 20418.

Abelson, R.P., and J.W. Tukey 1963 Efficient utilization of nonnumerical information in quantitative analysis: General theory and the case of simple order. Annals of Mathematical Statistics 34:1347-1369.

Alexander, C.H. 1998 Recent Developments in the American Community Survey. Paper prepared for presentation at the Joint Statistical Meetings, Dallas. Bureau of the Census, U.S. Department of Commerce, Washington, D.C. (August).

Alexander, C.H., S. Dahl, and L. Weidman 1997 Making Estimates from the American Community Survey. Paper prepared for presentation at the Joint Statistical Meetings, Anaheim, Calif. Bureau of the Census, U.S. Department of Commerce, Washington, D.C. (August).

Bell, W.R. 1997a A County CPS Model with “Census Residuals.” Statistical Research Division, Bureau of the Census, U.S. Department of Commerce, Washington, D.C. (July)

1997b Regression Diagnostics for Models for County Poverty Estimates–Complete. Statistical Research Division, Bureau of the Census, U.S. Department of Commerce, Washington, D.C. (September).

1999 Accounting for uncertainty about variances in small area estimation . Proceedings of the Section on Survey Research Methods. Alexandria, Va.: American Statistical Association.



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Small-Area Estimates of School-Age Children in Poverty: Evaluation of Current Methodology References and Bibliography NOTE: Many of the cited reports and papers by Census Bureau staff are available on the Census Bureau's web site: http://www.census.gov. Other reports related to small-area income and poverty estimates may be obtained by contacting: David Waddington, Division of Housing and Household Economic Statistics, U.S. Bureau of the Census, Washington, D.C. 20233. Papers that were prepared for the panel—marked by an asterisk (*)—are available from the Committee on National Statistics, 2101 Constitution Ave. NW, Washington, D.C. 20418. Abelson, R.P., and J.W. Tukey 1963 Efficient utilization of nonnumerical information in quantitative analysis: General theory and the case of simple order. Annals of Mathematical Statistics 34:1347-1369. Alexander, C.H. 1998 Recent Developments in the American Community Survey. Paper prepared for presentation at the Joint Statistical Meetings, Dallas. Bureau of the Census, U.S. Department of Commerce, Washington, D.C. (August). Alexander, C.H., S. Dahl, and L. Weidman 1997 Making Estimates from the American Community Survey. Paper prepared for presentation at the Joint Statistical Meetings, Anaheim, Calif. Bureau of the Census, U.S. Department of Commerce, Washington, D.C. (August). Bell, W.R. 1997a A County CPS Model with “Census Residuals.” Statistical Research Division, Bureau of the Census, U.S. Department of Commerce, Washington, D.C. (July) 1997b Regression Diagnostics for Models for County Poverty Estimates–Complete. Statistical Research Division, Bureau of the Census, U.S. Department of Commerce, Washington, D.C. (September). 1999 Accounting for uncertainty about variances in small area estimation . Proceedings of the Section on Survey Research Methods. Alexandria, Va.: American Statistical Association.

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Small-Area Estimates of School-Age Children in Poverty: Evaluation of Current Methodology Bell, W.R., P.W. Cardiff, R.C. Fisher, E.R. Miller, M. Kramer, P.M. Siegel, A. Strand, and D.G. Waddington 2000 Poverty Estimation for U.S. States, Counties, and School Districts . Paper prepared for the Joint Statistical Meetings, Indianapolis. Bureau of the Census, U.S. Department of Commerce, Washington, D.C. (August). Belsley, D.A., E. Kuh, and R.E. Welsch 1980 Regression Diagnostics: Identifying Influential Data and Sources of Collinearity. New York: Wiley. Betson, D.M.* 1999 Replication of Jim [Wyckoff's] New York Lunch Analysis Using Indiana Data. Prepared for Panel on Estimates of Poverty for Small Geographic Areas, Committee on National Statistics, National Research Council. Department of Economics, University of Notre Dame, Ind. Cardiff, P. 1998 IRS Tax Return Data and Poor Children. Draft. Housing and Household Economic Statistics Division, Bureau of the Census, U.S. Department of Commerce, Washington, D.C. (September). Coder, J.F., R.C. Fisher, and P.M. Siegel 1996 Making Model-Based Estimates of the Number of Related Persons Age 5-17 in Poverty for all U.S. Counties, 1994. Housing and Household Economic Statistics Division, Bureau of the Census, U.S. Department of Commerce, Washington, D.C. (November). Davis, S. 1994 Evaluation of Post Censal County Estimates for the 1980's. Population Division Working Paper Series, Number 5. Bureau of the Census. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Commerce. Fay, R.E. 1996 Methodology for Poverty Estimation for 1993. Section 2. Demographic Statistical Methods Division, Bureau of the Census, U.S. Department of Commerce, Washington, D.C. (November). 1997a Comparisons of CPS and Census Poverty Levels. Bureau of the Census, U.S. Department of Commerce, Washington, D.C. (October). 1997b Notes on Direct Variance Estimates for Counties. Bureau of the Census, U.S. Department of Commerce, Washington, D.C. (September). Fay, R.E., and R.A. Herriot 1979 Estimates of income for small places: An empirical Bayes application of James-Stein procedures to census data. Journal of the American Statistical Association 78:269-277. Fay, R.E., C.T. Nelson, and L. Litow 1993 Estimation of median income for 4-person families by state. Pp. 9-1 to 9-17 in Indirect Estimators in Federal Programs. Statistical Policy Working Paper 21, Statistical Policy Office, Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs, Office of Management and Budget . Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office. Fay, R.E., and G.F. Train 1995 Aspects of survey and model-based postcensal estimation of income and poverty characteristics for states and counties. Proceedings of the Section on Government Statistics. Alexandria, Va:. American Statistical Association. 1997 Small domain methodology for estimating income and poverty characteristics for states in 1993. Proceedings of the Social Statistics Section. Alexandria, Va.: American Statistical Association. Fisher, G.M. 1992 Poverty guidelines for 1992. Social Security Bulletin 55(1)(Spring):43-46.

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Small-Area Estimates of School-Age Children in Poverty: Evaluation of Current Methodology 1999 Small-Area Estimates of Children in Poverty, Interim Report 3, Evaluation of 1995 County and School District Estimates for Title I Allocations. Panel on Estimates of Poverty for Small Geographic Areas, C.F. Citro and G. Kalton, eds., Committee on National Statistics. Washington, D.C.: National Academy of Press. 2000 Small-Area Income and Poverty Estimates: Priorities for 2000 and Beyond. Panel on Estimates of Poverty for Small Geographic Areas, C.F. Citro and G. Kalton, eds., Committee on National Statistics. Washington, D.C.: National Academy of Press. Otto, M.C., and W.R. Bell 1995 Sampling error modeling of poverty and income statistics for states . American Statistical Association Proceedings of the Section on Government Statistics. Alexandria, Va.: American Statistical Association. Platek, R., J.N.K. Rao, C.E. Särndal, and M.P. Singh, eds. 1987 Small Area Statistics. New York: John Wiley and Sons. Prasad, N.G.N., and J.N.K. Rao 1990 The estimation of mean squared errors of small area estimators. Journal of the American Statistical Association 78:47-59. Rao, J.N.K. 1999 Small-Area Estimation: Updates with Appraisal. Unpublished paper. Carleton University, Ottawa. Reed, J.M. 1996 Puerto Rico Estimates and Projections Based on Demographic Component Method: 1990-1995. International Programs Center, Bureau of the Census, U.S. Department of Commerce, Washington, D.C. (November). Robinson, J.G., B. Ahmed, P. Das Gupta, and K. Woodrow 1993 Estimation of population coverage in the 1990 U.S. based on demographic analysis. Journal of the American Statistical Association 88(423):1061-1079. Santos, R., and D. Waddington* 1999 Obtaining Estimates of Child Poverty in Puerto Rico: An Overview of Current Practices and Recommendations for Improvement. Report prepared for the Panel on Estimates of Poverty for Small Geographic Areas, Committee on National Statistics, National Research Council . National Opinion Research Center, Chicago, Ill., and Bureau of the Census, U.S. Department of Commerce, Washington, D.C. Siegel, P. 1997 Background on Poverty Estimates for School Districts [Tables]. Housing and Household Economic Statistics Division, Bureau of the Census, U.S. Department of Commerce, Washington, D.C. (May). Siegel, P., and R. Fisher 1998 Sampling Variances of the 1990 Census Estimates of Numbers of Related Children Ages 5-17 in Families in Poverty for School Districts. Draft. Housing and Household Economic Statistics Division, Bureau of the Census, Washington, D.C. (September). Sink, L. 1996 Estimates of the Population of Counties by Age, Sex, Race, and Hispanic Origin: 1990-1994. Release PE-48 (Methodology). Bureau of the Census. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Commerce. Spencer, B.D., and Che-Fu Lee 1980 Postcensal population estimation methods of the Census Bureau. Pp. 131-187 in Estimating Population and Income of Small Areas. Panel on Small-Area Estimates of Population and Income, Committee on National Statistics, National Research Council. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. Thiel, H. 1971 Principles of Econometrics. New York: John Wiley and Sons.

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Small-Area Estimates of School-Age Children in Poverty: Evaluation of Current Methodology U.S. Census Bureau 1987 State Population and Household Estimates, with Age, Sex, and Components of Change: 1981-86. Current Population Reports, Series P-25, No. 1010. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Commerce. 1990 Money Income and Poverty Status in the United States, 1989. Current Population Reports, Series P60-168. Washington, D.C. U.S. Department of Commerce. 1993 Poverty in the United States: 1992. Current Population Report, Series P60-185. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Commerce. 1995a Income, Poverty, and Validation of Noncash Benefits: 1993. Current Population Reports, Series P60-188. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Commerce. 1995b Subnational Estimates of Total Population by the Tax Return Method . Population Estimates Branch, Population Division. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Commerce. 1996 Poverty in the United States: 1995. Current Population Reports, Series P60-194. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Commerce. 1998a 1995 SAIPE State and County Models. Draft documentation. By P. Cardiff, R. Fisher, P.Siegel, A. Strand, D. Waddington, W.R. Bell, and M. Kramer, with assistance from R.E. Fay and G. Train. Bureau of the Census, U.S. Department of Commerce, Washington, D.C. (October). 1998b Tables 1-24 [comparing 1990 census estimates and estimates produced by several methods for poor school-age children, total school-age children, and total population in school districts]. Bureau of the Census, U.S. Department of Commerce, Washington, D.C. (November). 2000 Poverty in the United States: 1999. Current Population Reports, Series P-60-210. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Commerce. U.S. Census Bureau and Bureau of Labor Statistics 2000 Current Population Survey Design and Methodology. Technical paper 63. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Commerce and U.S. Department of Labor. U.S. Office of Management and Budget 1993 Indirect Estimators in Federal Programs. Statistical Policy Working Paper 21. Subcommittee on Small-Area Estimation, Federal Committee on Statistical Methodology, Statistical Policy Office, Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office. Voss, P.R., R. Gibson, and K. Morgen* 1997 Assessment of the Initial 1993 Estimates of School-Age Children in Poverty. Report prepared for the Panel on Estimates of Poverty for Small Geographic Areas, Committee on National Statistics, National Research Council . Department of Rural Sociology, University of Wisconsin-Madison.