Women in the Chemical Workforce

A WORKSHOP REPORT TO THE CHEMICAL SCIENCES ROUNDTABLE

Chemical Sciences Roundtable

Board on Chemical Sciences and Technology

Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Applications

National Research Council

NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS
Washington, D.C.



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Women in the Chemical Workforce: A WORKSHOP REPORT TO THE CHEMICAL SCIENCES ROUNDTABLE Women in the Chemical Workforce A WORKSHOP REPORT TO THE CHEMICAL SCIENCES ROUNDTABLE Chemical Sciences Roundtable Board on Chemical Sciences and Technology Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Applications National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C.

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Women in the Chemical Workforce: A WORKSHOP REPORT TO THE CHEMICAL SCIENCES ROUNDTABLE NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. Support for this project was provided by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. CHE-9630106, the National Institutes of Health under Contract No. N01-OD-4-2139, and the U.S. Department of Energy under Grant No. DE-FG02-95ER14556. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the sponsors. International Standard Book Number 0-309-07293-X Library of Congress Card Number 00-110760 Additional copies of this report are available from: National Academy Press 2101 Constitution Avenue, NW Box 285 Washington, DC 20055 800-624-6242 202-334-3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area) http://www.nap.edu Board on Chemical Sciences and Technology 2101 Constitution Avenue, NW NAS 273 Washington, DC 20418 202-334-2156 Copyright 2000 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America

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Women in the Chemical Workforce: A WORKSHOP REPORT TO THE CHEMICAL SCIENCES ROUNDTABLE THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES National Academy of Sciences National Academy of Engineering Institute of Medicine National Research Council The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. William A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts and Dr. William A. Wulf are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council.

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Women in the Chemical Workforce: A WORKSHOP REPORT TO THE CHEMICAL SCIENCES ROUNDTABLE CHEMICAL SCIENCES ROUNDTABLE RICHARD C. ALKIRE, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Chair MARION C. THURNAUER, Argonne National Laboratory, Vice Chair ALEXIS T. BELL, University of California, Berkeley DARYLE H. BUSCH, University of Kansas MARCETTA Y. DARENSBOURG, Texas A&M University MICHAEL P. DOYLE, Research Corporation BRUCE A. FINLAYSON, University of Washington RICHARD M. GROSS, The Dow Chemical Company ESIN GULARI, Wayne State University L. LOUIS HEGEDUS, Elf Atochem North America, Inc. ANDREW KALDOR, Exxon R&D Laboratories FLINT LEWIS, American Chemical Society ROBERT L. LICHTER, The Camille & Henry Dreyfus Foundation, Inc. MARY L. MANDICH, Bell Laboratories ROBERT S. MARIANELLI, Office of Science and Technology Policy TOBIN J. MARKS, Northwestern University JOE J. MAYHEW, Chemical Manufacturers Association WILLIAM S. MILLMAN, U.S. Department of Energy NORINE E. NOONAN, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency JANET G. OSTERYOUNG, National Science Foundation NANCY L. PARENTEAU, Organogenesis, Inc. GARY W. POEHLEIN, National Science Foundation MICHAEL E. ROGERS, National Institute of General Medical Sciences HRATCH G. SEMERJIAN, National Institute of Standards and Technology PETER J. STANG, University of Utah D. AMY TRAINOR, Zeneca Pharmaceuticals JEANETTE M. VAN EMON, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency National Exposure Research Laboratory ISIAH M. WARNER, Louisiana State University Staff RUTH MCDIARMID, Senior Program Officer SUSAN R. MORRISSEY, National Research Council Intern SYBIL A. PAIGE, Administrative Associate DOUGLAS J. RABER, Director, Board on Chemical Sciences and Technology

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Women in the Chemical Workforce: A WORKSHOP REPORT TO THE CHEMICAL SCIENCES ROUNDTABLE BOARD ON CHEMICAL SCIENCES AND TECHNOLOGY LARRY E. OVERMAN, University of California, Irvine, Co-chair JOHN L. ANDERSON, Carnegie Mellon University, Co-chair BARBARA J. GARRISON, Pennsylvania State University ALICE P. GAST, Stanford University LOUIS C. GLASGOW, E.I. du Pont de Nemours & Company KEITH E. GUBBINS, North Carolina State University NANCY B. JACKSON, Sandia National Laboratories JIRI JONAS, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign GEORGE E. KELLER, Union Carbide Corporation (retired) RICHARD A. LERNER, Scripps Research Institute GREGORY A. PETSKO, Brandeis University WAYNE H. PITCHER, JR., Genencor Corporation KENNETH N. RAYMOND, University of California, Berkeley PAUL J. REIDER, Merck Research Laboratories LYNN F. SCHNEEMEYER, Bell Laboratories MARTIN B. SHERWIN, ChemVen Group, Inc. JEFFREY J. SIIROLA, Eastman Chemical Company CHRISTINE S. SLOANE, General Motors Research Laboratories PETER J. STANG, University of Utah JOHN T. YATES, JR., University of Pittsburgh STEVEN W. YATES, University of Kentucky Staff MARIA P. JONES, Senior Project Assistant RUTH MCDIARMID, Senior Program Officer SUSAN R. MORRISSEY, National Research Council Intern CHRISTOPHER K. MURPHY, Program Officer SYBIL A. PAIGE, Administrative Associate DOUGLAS J. RABER, Director

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Women in the Chemical Workforce: A WORKSHOP REPORT TO THE CHEMICAL SCIENCES ROUNDTABLE COMMISSION ON PHYSICAL SCIENCES, MATHEMATICS, AND APPLICATIONS PETER M. BANKS, XR Ventures, LLC, Co-chair WILLIAM H. PRESS, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Co-chair WILLIAM F. BALLHAUS, JR., The Aerospace Corporation SHIRLEY CHIANG, University of California, Davis MARSHALL H. COHEN, California Institute of Technology RONALD G. DOUGLAS, Texas A&M University SAMUEL H. FULLER, Analog Devices, Inc. MICHAEL F. GOODCHILD, University of California, Santa Barbara MARTHA P. HAYNES, Cornell University WESLEY T. HUNTRESS, Carnegie Institution of Washington CAROL M. JANTZEN, Westinghouse Savannah River Company PAUL G. KAMINSKI, Technovation, Inc. KENNETH H. KELLER, University of Minnesota JOHN R. KREICK, Sanders, A Lockheed Martin Company (retired) MARSHA I. LESTER, University of Pennsylvania W. CARL LINEBERGER, University of Colorado DUSA M. MCDUFF, State University of New York, Stony Brook JANET L. NORWOOD, Former Commissioner, U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics M. ELISABETH PATÉ-CORNELL, Stanford University NICHOLAS P. SAMIOS, Brookhaven National Laboratory ROBERT J. SPINRAD, Xerox PARC (retired) JAMES F. HINCHMAN, Acting Executive Director

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Women in the Chemical Workforce: A WORKSHOP REPORT TO THE CHEMICAL SCIENCES ROUNDTABLE Preface The Chemical Sciences Roundtable (CSR) was established in 1997 by the National Research Council (NRC). It provides a science-oriented, apolitical forum for leaders in the chemical sciences to discuss chemically related issues affecting government, industry, and universities. Organized by the NRC's Board on Chemical Sciences and Technology, the CSR aims to strengthen the chemical sciences by fostering communication among the people and organizations—spanning industry, government, universities, and professional associations—involved with the chemical enterprise. The CSR does this primarily by organizing workshops that address issues in chemical science and technology that require national attention. Women in the chemical workforce was identified as a workshop topic by the CSR in response to broad concerns in the chemical sciences community about underutilization of women in chemistry and chemical engineering. To provide a forum for exploring these concerns, a workshop was planned for May 2000. The workshop, “Women in the Chemical Workforce,” gathered leaders in chemistry and chemical engineering from government, industry, and academia together with experts from the social sciences and from business to explore practical approaches to improving the effectiveness of employers from all sectors in hiring and enabling the success of female professionals in chemistry. I am grateful to those members of the roundtable who provided key assistance in identifying topics and people for the workshop. A special note of thanks goes to Dr. Jong-On Hahm of the National Research Council's Committee on Women in Science and Engineering for her advice and assistance in organizing the workshop. The papers in this volume are the authors' own versions of their presentations, and the discussion comments were taken from a transcript of the workshop. In accord with the policies of the CSR, the workshop did not attempt to establish any conclusions or recommendations about needs and future directions, focusing instead on issues identified by the speakers. Janet G. Osteryoung Workshop Organizer

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Women in the Chemical Workforce: A WORKSHOP REPORT TO THE CHEMICAL SCIENCES ROUNDTABLE Acknowledgment of Reviewers This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the NRC's Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this report: Nancy B. Jackson, Sandia National Laboratory, E. Ann Nalley, Cameron University, Peter W. Rabideau, Iowa State University, and Geraldine L. Richmond, University of Oregon. Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Marsha I. Lester, University of Pennsylvania, appointed by the Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Applications, who was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution.

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Women in the Chemical Workforce: A WORKSHOP REPORT TO THE CHEMICAL SCIENCES ROUNDTABLE Contents     Summary   1  1   1970-2000: A Less Than Golden Age for Women in Chemistry? Margaret W. Rossiter (Cornell University)   6  2   The Advancement of Women in Science and Engineering Virginia Valian (Hunter College and the City University of New York Graduate Center)   24  3   Workforce for the 21st Century: The Federal Perspective Arthur Bienenstock (Office of Science and Technology Policy)   38  4   Reports from the Breakout Sessions   50  5   An Oddity No Longer: Women Scientists in Industry L. Shannon Davis (Solutia, Inc.)   58  6   Title IX for Women in Academic Chemistry: Isn't a Millennium of Affirmative Action for White Men Sufficient? Debra R. Rolison (Naval Research Laboratory)   74  7   Remarks for the Chemical Sciences Roundtable Dinner The Honorable Eddie Bernice Johnson (U.S. House of Representatives)   94  8   Reports from the Breakout Sessions   100  9   Experience of Women at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Nancy H. Hopkins (Massachusetts Institute of Technology)   110

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Women in the Chemical Workforce: A WORKSHOP REPORT TO THE CHEMICAL SCIENCES ROUNDTABLE  10   Reports from the Breakout Groups   125     Appendixes       A  Workshop Participants   137     B  Biographical Sketches of Workshop Speakers   140     C  Origin of and Information on the Chemical Sciences Roundtable   143