Marion C. Thurnauer, Argonne National Laboratory: Your comments reminded me of two studies carried out in the mid-1980s, one at MIT45 and the other at Stanford.46 These studies examined graduate student life and surveyed both male and female graduate students, asking questions about their situations as graduate students. I believe the conclusions were that male and female students had similar (rather negative) assessments of the situation. Women, however, were willing to discuss the situation and act on it—by dropping out. It was disheartening to see similar articles a year or two ago, because they appeared after a student had committed suicide. I think you have offered some solutions to this somewhat negative situation. For me, this is the difference between now and 15 years ago.

Debra Rolison: I like to be provocative.


M.S. Dresselhaus, IEEE Trans. Educ. E-28, 196 (1985).


L.T. Zappert and K. Stansbury. “In the pipeline: A comparative analysis of men and women in graduate programs in science, engineering, and medicine at Stanford University. ” Tech. Rep. Working Paper 20, Institute for Research on Women and Gender, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, 14 November 1984, p. 11.

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