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References Agricultural Research Institute. 1985. A Survey of U.S. Agricultural Re- search by Private Industry III. Bethesda, Md.: Agricultural Research Institute. Anderson, C. J. 1984. Plant Biology Personnel and Training at Doctorate- Granting Institutions. Higher Education Panel Reports No. 62. Wash- ington, D.C.: American Council on Education. Blumenthal, D., M. Gluck, K. S. Louis, and D. Wise. 1986. Industrial support of university research in biotechnology. Science 231:242-246. Bonnen, J. J. 1983. Historical sources of U.S. agricultural productivity: implications for R&D policy and social science research. Am. J. Agric. Eco. 65 :958-966. Brown, A. W. A., T. C. Byerly, M. Gibbs, and A. San Pietro. 1975. Crop Productivity-Research Imperatives. Paper presented at an interna- tional conference held at Boyne Highlands Inn, Harbor Springs, Mich., October 20-24, 1975. Buttel, F. H., M. Kenney, and J. Kloppenburg. 1985. Industry-University Relationships and the Land-Grant System. Paper presented at a Sym- posium on the Agricultural Scientific Enterprise, University of Kentucky, Lexington, March 1985. Carson, R. 1962. Silent Spring. Boston, Mass.: Houghton Mifflin. Cole, S., L. Rubin, and J. R. Cole. 1978. Peer Review in the National Science Foundation, National Research Council. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. Evenson, R. E., P. E. Waggoner, and V. W. Ruttan. 1979. Economic benefits from research: an example from agriculture. Science 205:1101-1107. Evenson, R. E., and B. Wright. 1980. An Evaluation of Methods for Examining the Quality of Agricultural Research. U.S. Food and Agri- cultural Research Paper No. 6. Washington, D.C.: Office of Technology Assessment. 145

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146 AGRICULTURAL BIOTECHNOLOGY Experiment Station Committee on Organization and Policy. 1984. Research 1984. The State Agricultural Experiment Stations. Cooperative State Research Service. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Agriculture. Government-University-Industry Research Roundtable. 1986. New Alliances and Partnerships in American Science and Engineering. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. Hightower, J. 1973. Hard Tomatoes, Hard Times. Cambridge, Mass.: Schenkman. Institute of Medicine. 1985. Personnel Needs and Training for Biomedical and Behavioral Research. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. Institute of Medicine. 1983. Personnel Needs and Training for Biomedical and Behavioral Research. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. Intersociety Working Group. 1986. AAAS Report XI. Research and Devel- opment, FY 1987. Washington, D.C.: American Association for the Advancement of Science. Kiesler, S. 1986. Thinking ahead, the hidden messages in computer networks. Harvard Bus. Rev. 64:46-59. Magrath, W. B. 1985. Factors Affecting the Location of the U.S. Biotech- nology Industry. Agricultural Economics Staff Paper 85-26, Cornell University, Ithaca, N.Y. Mayer, A., and J. Mayer. 1974. Agriculture, the island empire. Daedalus 103:83-95. National Agricultural Research and Extension Users Advisory Board. 1986. Appraisal of the Proposed 1987 Budget for Food and Agricultural Sciences. Report to the President and Congress. W~hin~t:~n n lo. U.S. Department of Agriculture. ~. . _ . . lo, ~ _ ~ ^, ~ . i_ . . National Association of State Universities and Land-Grant Colleges. 1986. Emerging Biotechnologies in Agriculture: Issues and Policies. Progress Report V. Washington, D.C.: NASULGC. National Association of State Universities and Land-Grant Colleges. 1985. Emerging Biotechnologies in Agriculture: Issues and Policies. Progress Report IV. Washington, D.C.: NASULG C. National Association of State Universities and Land-Grant Colleges. 1984. Emerging Biotechnologies in Agriculture: Issues and Policies. Progress Report III. Washington, D.C.: NASULG C. National Association of State Universities and Land-Grant Colleges. 1983. Emerging Biotechnologies in Agriculture Issues ancl P~liri~c Prma~r= Report II. Washington D.C.: NASULOC. National Center for Education Statistics. 1985. The Condition of Education. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Education. National Research Council. 1985a. New Directions for Biosciences Research in Agriculture: High-Reward Opportunities. Washington, D.C.: Na- tional Academy Press. National Research Council. 1985b. Report of the Research Briefing Panel on Agricultural Research. In New Pathways in Science and Technology: Collected Research Briefings 1982-1984, COSEPUP (pp. 62-873. New York: Random House.

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REFERENCES 147 National Research Council. 1984. Genetic Engineering of Plants: Agricul- tural Research Opportunities and Policy Concerns. Proceedings of a convocation sponsored by the Board of Agriculture, National Research Council. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. National Research Council. 1983. Summary Report 1983, Doctorate Re- cipients from United States Universities. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. National Research Council. 1975. World Food and Nutrition Study: En- hancement of Food Production for the United States. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. National Research Council. 1972. Report of the Committee on Research Advisory to the U.S. Department of Agriculture. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. National Science Board. 1985. Science Indicators: The 1985 Report. Wash- ington, D.C.: National Science Foundation. National Science Board Commission on Precollege Education in Mathematics, Science and Technology. 1983. Educating Americans for the 21st Century. Washington; D.C.: National Science Foundation. National Science Foundation. 1986. Federal Funding for Research and Devel- opment: Federal Obligations for Research to Universities and Colleges FY 1973-1986. Washington, D.C.: National Science Foundation. National Science Foundation. 1983. Science Indicators 1982. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office. Office of Science and Technology Policy. 1986. Coordinated framework for regulation of biotechnology: announcement of policy and notice for public comment. Fed. Regist. 51~123~:23301-23393. Office of Technology Assessment. 1986. Technology, Public Policy, and the Changing Structure of American Agriculture (OTA-F-285~. Washing- ton, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office. Office of Technology Assessment. 1984. Commercial Biotechnology: An International Analysis. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office. Office of Technology Assessment. 1983. Commercial Biotechnology. An International Analysis (0-25-561~. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office. Office of Technology Assessment. 1981. An Assessment of the U.S. Food and Agricultural Research System (OTA-F-155~. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office. OMEC International. 1985. Patent analysis. Biotechnol. Patent Dig. 4~10):150-151. Omenn, G. S. 1982a. University-Corporate Relations in Science and Tech- nology. Paper presented at the National Conference on University- Corporate Relations in Science and Technology, University of Pennsyl- vania, Philadelphia, 15 December 1982. Omenn, G. S. 1982b. Taking university research into the marketplace. New Engl. J. Med. 307:694-700. Press, F. 1986. Science: the best and worst of times. Science 231:1351-1352. Roberts, E. B. 1982. Is licensing an effective alternative? Res. Manage. 9:20-24.

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148 AGRICULTURAL BIOTECHNOLOGY Ruttan, V. W. 1982. Agricultural Research Policy. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. Sitting, M., and R. Noyes. 1985. Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Firms Worldwide Directory. Kingston, N.J.: Sitting and Noyes. U.S. Commissioner of Patents and Trademarks. 1985. Annual Report Fiscal Year '84. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Commerce, Patent and Trademark Office. U.S. Department of Agriculture. 1986. Inventory of Agricultural Research Fiscal Year 1985. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Agriculture. . General Accounting Office. 1986. Biotechnology: Analysis of Feder- ally Funded Research (GAO/RCED-86-187~. Washington, D.C.: U.S. General Accounting Office. U.S. General Accounting Office. 1985. Biotechnology: The U.S. Department of Agriculture's Biotechnology Research Efforts (GAO/RCED-86-39- BR). Washington, D.C.: U.S. General Accounting Office. Webber, D. 1984. Biotechnology firms gird for clash over patent claims. Chem. Eng. News 12:18-24. White House Science Council Panel on the Health of U.S. Colleges and Universities. 1986. A Renewed Partnership. Office of Science and Technology Policy. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office. Winrock International. 1982. Science for Agriculture: Report of a Work- shop on Critical Issues in American Agricultural Research. New York: Rockefeller Foundation.