Click for next page ( 194


The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement



Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.

OCR for page 193
Index A Adenovirus as vector for gene transfer, 163-165 Affiliate programs, and technology transfer, 7, 13, 113, 142 Agency for International Development, 68 Agribusiness, research affecting, 55 Agricultural Research Institute, 69 Agricultural Research Serv ice, 11, 52, 59, 72, 77, 98, 99, 102, 112, 133 Agrobactcrium tumefacicns, Ti plasmid from, 19, 80-81, 160, 172, 173, 176-178, 183 Agronomy, 8, 15, 48, 129 Alaromones, use of, 31 Alcohol fuel, 41-42 Alfalfa, 20, 24, 177 Allelopaths, studies of, 26 Alliances among universities, industries, and government, 111-123, 142 and ownership of intellectual property, 111, 139-140 American Council on Education, 91 Amino acids contained in Brazil nuts, 25, 177 production from corynebacteria, 180 193 Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, 63 Animals, 33-44 basic research in, 8, 48 breeding of, 33-37 cell structure in, 154 gene transfer in, 151 by cell fusion, 161-163 by DNA microinjection, 157-159 vector-mediated, 163-171 growth hormones in, 35-36 microorganisms associated with, 37-41 pregnancy tests for, 34 Antibiotics, 38, 180 Antibodies fat destruction by, 36 gene transfer by DNA microinjection, 158 monoclonal, ecc Monoclonal antibodies Applied research, 5 links with other disciplines, 51, 82 Aquaculture, 37 A~hbya go``ypii, 43 Asparagus gene transfer with Ti plasmid, 177 AspergilluJ nidulan~, 179

OCR for page 193
194 B Bacillm thursng~cn~is, 31, 174, 180 Backcrossing of fusion products, 162 Bacteria diagnosis based on monoclonal antibodies, 161 gene transfer in, 151 by direct DNA uptake, 156 by transposable elements, 174 plasmids in, 178-181 Baculoviruses as vectors in gene transfer, 32, 170-171 Basic research, 5,48-49 applications of, 56-59,125-126 funding of, ecu Funding of research links with other disciplines, 52,81 recommendations for, 8 Beans, 172,177 Biochemistry, basic research in, 48 Biological Energy Research Division of Department of Energy, 67 Biomass energy, 41-42 Bioprocessing, 3,41-44,81-82 in food production, 42-43 in fuel production, 41-42 Biotechnology centers at land-grant universities, 124 definition of, 3,16-17 Booroola gene, 36 Bovine papilloma virus as vector for gene transfer, 165-166 Boyce Thompson Institute, 71 Brasaica line, cyb rid formation in, 163 Brazil nuts, protein in, 25,177 Breeding of animals, 33-37 of plants at land-grant universities, 124 in seed industry, 109 traditional methods compared to molecular gene transfer in, 17, 149-150 Brome mosaic virus, 172 INDEX C Calcium phosphate, and DNA uptake by cells, 155, 161, 164, 170 Career development programs, 90, 101,105 Carnegie Institution of Washington, 71 Carrots, 157,177 Cauliflower mosaic virus, 171, 174 Cells cultures of, 3,4,8,20-21,47,49 animal, proteins manufactured in, 165 insect, 170 plant, 155, 160 fusion techniques, 4, g, 47, 50, 161-163, 181 in animals, 161-163 in plants, 162-163 microinjection into plants, 157, 158 Centers for research, 83-84,85,124 Cereals, 20,179 Chemicals used in agriculture, 24 Chicken transferrin gene expressed in transgenic mice, 158 Chlorophyll a/b binding protein gene transfer, 177 Chloroplasts, 159, 160, 163, 183 Chromosomes maps of, 36, 46, 49, 162 microinjection of, 159, 160 Cloning of genes, 18-lg of plant varieties, 20, 21 Cochliobolu~ hetcrostrophw, 179 Co-dominant genes, 184 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, 71,84,100 Colibacillosis, enteric, 3, 17, 22-23, 38 Collaborative research programs, 10, 13, 82-85 Columbia University Science and Technology Development Office, 130137

OCR for page 193
INDEX Commercialization of research results, 7, 14 Competitive Research Grants Office Program, 81 Competitiveness of U.S. agriculture factors affecting, 2, 54, 143-144 strategies for, 4-7, 109, 129-130 Conflicts of interest in alliances among universities, Industries, and government, 111, 114, 141 Consortia, 7, 13,114, 142 Consultancies, 7, 13, 113, 142 Contracts, university/industry, 195 D Demand for scientists, 91-93 Demographic factors affecting research, 93-95 Department of Agriculture (USDA) Agricultural Research Service, 11, 52, 59, 72, 78, 98, 99, 102, 112, 133 competitive grants from, 97 patenting and licensing by, 133 postdoctoral programs of, 98, 99 predoctoral programs of, 98 113-il4,124-;25 regulatory programs of, 14-15 retraining programs of, 13 Cooperative Extension Service, 14, 52, 62-63, 125-126, 142 Cooperative State Research Service, 52, 60-61, 68 Corn DNA uptake by cells in, 157 gene expression in, 24 gene transfer in, 183 with Ti plasmid, 177 infection with geminiviru~es, 172 protection against cutworm, 180 transposable elements in, 174, 175 zein storage protein in, ~77 Cornell University Biotechnology Program, 84, 85, 115-116, 123 Corynebacteria, use of, 180 County governments involved in agricultural extension, 52 Cows, 33, 35 Crop production, 23-33, 55 and control of traits in plants, 24-27 research developments in, 126 Crop protection, 27, 30-33 Cross-protection of plants, 29 Crown gall disease, 80, 176 Cultured cells, ecu Cells, cultures of Current Research Information System, 72 Curricula development in universities, 105 Cybrid formation, 163 Cysteine, in Brazil nuts, 25, 177 Cytoplasmic traits, transfer of, 160, 162, 163 role in innovations, 2, 3 support for research, 5, 10-11, 52, 59-63, 72, 81, 87 support for training programs, 13 Department of Commerce, 110, 132 Department of Defense, 67 Department of Energy, 59, 67 Department of Health and Human Services, 65~6 Developmental processes, research in, 26-27, 47-48, 50 Diamond v. Chakrabarty, 57 Dicots, 156,157, 172, 183 Disease resistance in plants, 24, 149, 162 DNA complementary copies of RNA virus, 172 homologous recombination of, 170, 176 microinjection into cells, 157-160 181 in animals, 157-159 in plants, 159-160 probes of, 25,28-29,162 recombinant, 3 and field testing of products, 127-130 patents for products of, 137-138 restriction fragment length polymorphisms, 162 segment sizes in gene transfer 152-153 uptake by cells, 150, 151

OCR for page 193
196 by chemical treatments, 155-156, 161 direct, 155-157, 161, 178, 181, 183 by electroporation, 156-157, 161 in organ transformation technique, 156 Dominant genes, 184 Drosophila mclanogastcr, 20, 150, 158, 175 Drug production by genetic engineering, 155, 180 Drug resistance gene transfer for, 158, 168 genes for, used as tags, 152 Dunalicila bardaunl, 43 EINDEX Entrepreneurial companies, 114, 115 Environmental considerations, 4, g, 48,130 plant and animal responses in, 8, 27 in testing of biotechnology products, 7,14-15,123, 126-130,143 Environmental Protection Agency, 14,59,64,143 Enzymes in bioprocessing, 43-44 for isolation of genes, 18,151 Equity ownership in entrepreneurial companies, 115 E~chcmchia coli, 23,150,151 Ethanol production, 42,44 Eucaryotes, 154,162,178,183 Expression vectors, and protein manufacture by animal cells, 165 Ecological aspects of biotechnology, 9,129-130 and regulatory procedures in fieldExtension services, 2,144 testing, 7,14-15,123,programs in Cooperative 126-130,143 Economic Research Service, 62,72 Ecosystem, 30, 48, 50 Education of public, aboutF biotechnology, 9, 12, 13, 48, 50, 88 Educational programs, dCC ~80 Postdoctoral programs; Predoctoral programs; Training demographic factors in, 93-95 federal support for, 6 and scientific training, 95-101 Efficiency of production, Cc Productivity Electrofusion, cellular, 161 Electroporation, DNA uptake by, 156-1~7, 161, 181 Embryo manipulation and transfer, 3,8,33,47,49,150,158 DNA microinjection in, 157-159, 183 germ line cells in, 168 Employment in biotechnology industry, 91 Entomology, 8,15, 48,129 Extension Service, 13,52,63, 125-126,142 Faculties, university recruitment of, 83,86 sabbaticals for, 105-106 Farming operations, research developments in, 125-126 Fat-to-muscle ratio in animals, 36, 49,149 Federal government, Cc also Department of Agriculture interactions with universities and industry, 109-121,142 partnership with state agencies, 52-53 patenting and licensing by, 131-133 regulatory procedures for field testing, 7,14,126-130,143 support for research, 59-68, 81-82, 86,87-88,121-122 support for training programs, 92, 93,97-103,106-107

OCR for page 193
INDEX Federal Technology Transfer Act of 1986, 7, 13, 103, 110, 115, 131, 133, 137, 140, 142 Fellowships, postdoctoral, 65, 90, 98, 99 Fermentation technology, 82 Fertility, transfer of genes for, 162 Fertilizers, use of, 23, 24 Field tests of ice-minus strain of Pseudomonas ~yr~ngac, 28 regulatory procedures in, 7, 14-15, 123, 126-130, 143 site-safety officer in, 129 sites for, 128-129, 143 Fish, 37, 159 Food additives produced by genetic engineering, 155 crops for energy production, 42 nutritious varieties of, 3, 24, 90, 143, 177 production with bioprocessing, 42-43 Food and Agriculture Act of 1977, 55 Food and Drug Administration, 14, 66, 143 Foot-and-mouth disease, 3, 17, 38, 56 Foreign students in agricultural sciences, 95 Forest Service, 52, 62, 72 Forestry research, funding for, 51 Foundations in support of science programs, 12, 89 Frost damage prevention, 28 Fruit dies, 20, 150, 15B, 174, 175 Fruit production in plants, control of, 26-27 Fuel production, 41-42 Funding of research, 7, 012, 51-59 annual expenditures for, 5 appropriations by Congress, 55-56 for competitive grants, 87-88 by federal agencies, 59-68, 81, 86, 87-88, 122, 131-132 grants in, arc Grants peer review of, Cc Peer and merit review 197 by private sector, 2, 3, 5, 11-12, 58, 7~71, 88-89, 122 and rate of return for investments, 53-54 state support of, 12, 52-53, 68-69, 86, 88, 123 Fungi cell structure in, 154 diagnosis based on monoclonal antibodies, 161 direct DNA uptake by cells in, 156 diseases in insects, 33 infections of plants, protection from, 27 plasmids in, 178-181 G Gastroenteritis in swine, 167 Geminiviruses~as vectors for gene transfer, 172 Genesis) cloning of, 18-19 control sequences in, 153 copy number for, 153, 163 identification of, 4, 8, 45-46, 49 integration into host chromosomes, 155, 157, 164, 181 isolation of, 18-19, 149, 175 mapping of, 36, 46, 49, 162 protein products of, 153 field testing of, 126-130 patents for, 57-58 structure and function of, 4, 9, 47, 49 regulated expression of, 181-182 position effects and gene expression in plants, 171 regulation of, 4, 8, 46, 49 tagging of, 46, 152, 163 transfer methods, 3, 17-23, 140184 in animals, 34 cell culture and regeneration techniques in, 20-21 by cell fusion, 161-163 and crop production enhancement, 24-27

OCR for page 193
198 compared to gene isolation strategy, 175 direct DNA uptake in, 154-157 efficiency of, 152 stable inheritance in, 149, 153, 154, 157 Ti plasmid in, 176-178 transposable elements in, 158, 174-176, 181 vector-mediated, 152-153, 163-1 74 transient expression system in, 153, 155, 157, 164, 165 General Accounting Office, 53, 77 Germ cells, foreign DNA in, 34 Germ line cells of embryos, 168 Glyphosate, resistance to, 25-26, 177 Government programs, Cc Federal government; State government Government-University-Indust ry Research Roundtable, 111 Graduate education, ecc Predoctoral programs Grants, 51, 55, 57 by federal agencies, 87-88, 97 by industries, 12, 88, 113-114, 142 for interdisciplinary programs, 84, 103 by National Science Foundation, 11, 97 peer review for, 51, 55, 57, 99 recommendations for, 11 and technology transfer, 7, 13 for training programs, 105 Growth hormones animal, 35-36, 57 bovine, 35 microinjection of, in fish, 37 porcine, 35 in transgenic mice, 158, 182 Growth regulators in plants, 2027 production by corynebacteria, 180 H Hatch Act, 60` 72, 103 Herbicides production by corynebacteria, 180 INDEX resistance to, 3, 16, 24, 25-26, 57 proteins involved in, 183 transfer of, 160, 163, 177, 178 Hormones animal growth hormones, 35-36, 57, arc also Growth hormones detection in blood with monoclonal antibodies, 22 gene transfer by DNA microinjection, 158 insect, 31 production by genetic engineering, 155 Hornworm resistance, 162 Hybrid viruses as vectors for gene transfer, 164 Hybridoma technology, 22, 161 I Ice-minus strain of P`cudomor~as ~yrsn~ac, 28 Immunity, cellular, from vaccinia vaccines, 167 Immunoglobulins, gene transfer by DNA microinjection, 158 Industry, Cc Private sector Inoculants, rhizobial, 30 Insects control of, sec Pesticides direct DNA uptake by cells in, 156 fruit fly, 20, 150, 158, 174, 175 gene transfer by microinjection, 158-159 infection with baculoviruses, 170-1 71 Insemination, artificial, in animal breeding, 33 Insertion vectors, 167, 170, 176 Institute of Medicine, 91, 93 Institutions, 108-121 Institutions supporting research programs, 012 Integration of research disciplines, 51, 81-85 Integration of transferred genes into chromosomes, 155, 157, 165, 181

OCR for page 193
INDEX Intellectual property, ownership of, 111, 130, 139-140 Interactions among organisms, 4, 8-9, 50 symbiotic relationships in, 30, 47 of extension agents and research scientists, 125-126 of universities, industry, and government, 109-121, 142 Interdisciplinary research programs, 9-10, 13, 104-106, 121-123 grants for, 84, 103 conferences and seminars in, 84 International marketplace, competition in, Cc Competitiveness of U.S. agriculture International Rice Research Institute, 84 Intestinal bacteria of animals, alterations in, 40-41 Iowa State University Research Foundation, 135, 138 Isolation of genes, 18-19, 151, 175 J Joint Council on Food and Agricultural Sciences, 53 Juvenile hormone analogues affecting insects, 31 L Lactation, transfer of genes for, 162 Land-grant universities, 2, 3, 52, 68, 123-125 collaboration with private universities, 84, 85 integration of research in, 5, 82 training centers in plant biology, 99 Legumes nitrogen fixation by, 27, 29-30, 179 propagation and regeneration of, 20 protein composition of, 25 Lepidopteran insects, 170-171, 180 199 Licensing, sec Patenting and .. . 1lcensmg Lilies, gene transfer with Ti plasmid, 177 Linkage institutions, 109-121 Lolium m?dtiforum, 156 Lysine production by bioprocessing, 43 M Mapping of genes, 36, 46, 49, 162 Markers linked to genes, 46, 152, 163 Massachusetts Institute of Technology Biotechnology Process Engineering Center, 85 Mastitis in animals, 39 McIntire-Stennis funds for forestry research, 60 McKnight Foundation, 12, 84, 89, 103 Merit review, ace Peer and merit review Methane production, 42 Methionine in Brazil nuts, 25, 177 production for animal feed, 43 Mice, tran~genic, 158, 182 Michigan Biotechnology Institute, 83, 117-118 Microbiology, and regulation of field testing, 15, 129 Microinjection of DNA into cells, 157-160, 181 of pollen or embryos, 183 of transposable elements, 175 Microorganisms associated with animals, 37-41 associated with plants, 27-30 gene transfer in, 151 Milk, production, 33, 35 Minichromosomes, 153, 156 Mitochondria, 160, 163, 183 Molecular biology, 17-23, 56 basic research in, 8, 48 gene transfer methods in, 149-184 and regulation of field testing, 15, 129

OCR for page 193
200 Monoclonal antibodies, 3, 21-23 creation by cell fusion, 161 diagnostic uses of, 22, 23, 38, 161 in pregnancy tests for animals, 34 therapeutic uses of, 22-23, 37-38, 161 Monocots, 156, 157, 160, 172, 177, 183 Monsanto Company, 114, 180 Muscle-to-fat ratio in animals, 36, 49, 149 N National Aeronautics and Space Administration, 59, 67-68, 102 National Agricultural Research, Extension and Teaching Act of 1977, 55 National Association of State Universities and Land-Grant Colleges, 53, 56, 75, 77, 92 National Biological Impact Assessment Program, 128-129 National Bureau of Standards, 102, 112 National Institute of General Medical Sciences, 65 National Institutes of Health, 57, 59, 65, 99, 112, 128 training system of, 101-102, 103 National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 102 National Research Council, 102 National Research Service Awards, 101-102 National Science Board, 96 National Science Foundation, 57, 59, 64~5, 81, 85 career development programs of, 101 grants from, 11, 97 postdoctoral programs of, 100, 103 predoctoral programs of, 100, 103 summer courses of, 100 National strategy for biotechnology, development of, 3-7 National Technical Information Service, 132-133 INDEX Nematodes, 161, 174 New Jersey Center for Advanced Biotechnology and Medicine, 119 Nif genes, 30 Nitrogen-fixing bacteria, 27, 29-30, 179 Nod genes, 30 North Carolina Biotechnology Center, 118 Nuclei of cells, 154, 160, 162 o Office of Management and Budget, 53 Office of Naval Research, 67 Office of Science and Technology Policy, 53 Office of Technology Assessment, 53, 91, 130 Oil crops, genetic engineering of, 25 Oilseed rape DNA uptake by protoplasts from, 156 propagation and regeneration of, 20 Ti plasmid vectors for, 177 Omnivac, 39 P-element vector for gene transfer, 158, 175 Papilloma virus, bovine, as vector for gene transfer, 165-166 Parasites, vaccines against, 167 Parasitism, molecular, and viral disease control, 173 Patent Act, P.L. 96-517,124 Patenting and licensing, 57-58, 130-141,142 assistance from technical development offices, 114-115 biotechnology inventions in, 138-139 by federal government, 131-135 recent proposals for, 110 revenues from, 137-138 royalties from, 141

OCR for page 193
INDEX and technology transfer, 7,14 by universities, 135-137 Pathogens crop losses from, 27 diagnosis based on monoclonal antibodies, 161 insect, 32 interaction with hosts, 48-49 interaction with plants, 48 resistance with Ri plasmid vector, 178 Peer and merit review, 10, 75-76, 87,143-144 of allocation of research funds, 5 of grants, 51,55,57,99 of training programs, 6 Pepper plants, RNA satellites placed in, 173 Personnel required for biotechnology, 91-95 and scientist-years devoted to research, 73-75 temporary exchanges of, 102 training programs for, Cc Training Pesticides, 23,30-33 baculoviruses as, 170-171 problems with, 30,55 production by corynebacteria, 180 resistance to, Ri plasmid vector in, 178 transfer of bacterial toxin genes for, 31-32, 180 Petunias, 156,177 Phaseolin storage protein gene transfer, 177 Pheromones, use of, 31, 170 Photosynthesis, proteins in, 183 Physiology of plants, basic research in, 48 Pigs, sec Swine Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc., 84 Pittsburgh Plate Glass/Scripps Clinic, 116-117,123 Plant Gene Expression Center, 120-121 Plant Variety Protection Act of 1970,57 Plants, Cc also Crop production 201 cell structure in, 154 disease resistance in, 24,149,162 funding for biology research in, 99 gene transfer in, 151 by cell fusion, 162-163 by DNA microinjection, 159-160 interdisciplinary research program for, 12 microorganisms associated with, 27-30 regeneration techniques, 3,4,8, 20-21,47,49,150,155 Ti plasmid in, 176,177 resistance to herbicides, sec Herbicides, resistance to viruses as vectors for gene transfer, 171-174 Plasmids, 19, 152,181 bacterial, 178-181 fungal, 178-181 Ri plasmid, 178 Ti plasmid, 19, 80-81,159,160, 172,173,176-178,183 Pollen grains, 160,183 Polyethylene glycol in cell fusion studies, 161 and DNA uptake by plant cells, 156 Polygenic traits, 34,160,162 Polyhedrin gene in baculovirus, 170 Position effects, and gene expression in plants, 173-174 Postdoctoral personnel, 94-95 demographic trends in, 93 federal support for, 107 fellowships for, 65, 90, 98, 99 foreigners as, 95 opportunities for, 92 Postdoctoral programs at National Institutes of Health, 101-102 at National Science Foundation, 100, 103 Potatoes, 24,162 Predoctoral programs federal support for, 92, 93, 107 at National Institutes of Health, 101-102 at National Science Foundation, 100, 103

OCR for page 193
202 at U.S. Department of Agriculture, 98 Pregnancy tests in animals, 34 Presidential Young Investigator Awards, 65, 101 Private sector affiliates in universities, 113, 142 collaboration with public sector, 6-7, 13, 58-59, 85 contracts with universities, 124 interactions with universities and government, 109-123, 143 role in retraining scientists, 97 support for research, 2, 3, 5, 12, 58, 70-71, 88-89, 122 support for training programs, 103 Procaryotes, 154, 178 Productivity cell culture techniques affecting, 21 in fish farming, 37 graduate education affecting, 93 programs needed for efficiency in, 2, 89 research affecting, 54, 143 technology transfer affecting, 109 Promoters of foreign gene expression, 170, 171, 172 Pronucleus, DNA microinjection into, 157, 158 Proteins manufacture in cultured animal cells, 165 as products of genes, 153 single-cell, as food source, 43 storage, genetic engineering of, 25, 177 Protoplasm, plant regeneration from, 20, 156, 157, 162-163 Provirus in vector-mediated gene transfer, 169 P`cudomon~ p~orcecene, 31-32, 174, 180 syringac, ice-minus, 27 Pseudorabies, vaccines against, 3, 17, 39 Public health, and regulation of field testing, 15, 128-130 INDEX Public sector collaboration with private sector, 6-7, 13, 58, 85, JCC ~JO Federal government Purdue University Research Foundation, 135 R Rabbits, transgenic, 158 Rabies, 38, 40, 167 Rat genes expressed in transgenic mice, 158 Recessive genes, 184 Recombinant DNA Advisory Committee, 128 Recommendations for national strategies in biotechnology, 7-14, 48-50 for funding, 86-89 for field testing, 14-15, 143 for technology transfer, 13-14, 142-143 for training programs, 12-13, 106-107 Regeneration of plants, Cc Plants, regeneration techniques Regulated gene expression, problems in, 181-182 Regulatory procedures in field testing, 7, 14-15, 123, 126-130, 143 and technology transfer, 7, 14 Regulatory sequences of genes promoting high-level foreign gene expression, 170, 171 Report of the White House Science Council Panel on the Health of U.S. Colleges and Universities, 93 Research, 4-5, 8, arc ale o Basic research applications and commercialization of, 6-7 criticisms of, 55 decentralization in, 54 demographic factors affecting, 93-95 funding of, ecc Funding of research

OCR for page 193
INDEX personnel in, 8dC Personnel required for biotechnology Research centers, 83-84, 85, 124 Research Corporation, 125, 135 Research parks, 7, 13, 114, 142 Resistance in plants to disease, 24, 149, 162 to herbicides, Cc Herbicides, resistance to Restriction enzymes, use of, 18-19 Retraining programs, 13, 84, 87, 90, 97, 105-106, 107 Retroviruses as vectors for gene transfer, 167-169, 174 Rhizobium strains for nitrogen fixation, 27, 29-30, 179 Ri plasmid, 178 Ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase, gene transfer for, 177 Rice, 12, 178, 183 Ripening of fruits, control of, 26-27 RNA viruses as vectors in gene transfer, 172-174 Rockefeller Foundation, 12, 84, 89 Royalties from patenting and licensing, 141 Rye, DNA microinjection in, 160 S Sabbaticals for faculty, 105-106 for government scientists, 84, 85, 86 Salmoncila typhim~rium, gene derived from, 26 Salt tolerance in plants, 183 Satellites, viral, 173 Scientists, ecc Personnel required for biotechnology Scours, 3, 17, 22-23, 38 Scripps Department of Molecular Biology, 116-117, 123 Seed industry, breeding programs of, 109 Seeds, gene transfer for, 177, 183 Seminars and conferences, interdisciplinary, 83 Sheep, 36, 150, 158 203 Shuttle vectors, 154, 165-166 Simian virus 40 as vector for gene transfer, 163-165 Small Business Innovation Development Act of 1982, 110 Snapdragons, transposable elements in, 174, 175 Somaclonal variants of plants, 21 Soybeans gene expression in, 24 gene transfer in, 150 nitrogen fixation by, 27, 29 propagation and regeneration of, 20 protein composition of, 25 Ti plasmid vectors for, 177 transposable elements in, 174, 175 Stable inheritance of transferred genes, 149-150, 153, 154, 155, 157 State Agricultural Experiment Stations, 14, 51, 60, 68-69, 72, 77, 113, 142 State Cooperative Extension Services, 13, 52, 62-63, 125-126, 142 State government funding of university laboratories, 97 support of agricultural research, 11 52-53 68-69, 86, 88, 123 Sterility female, in tran~genic mice, 182 male, cytoplasmic, transfer of, 160, 163 Stevenson-Wydler Technology Innovation Act of 1980, 110, 131, 133 Stomatitis, vesicular, in animals, 38, 40, 167 Suspension cultures for gene transfer in plants, 160 Swine gene maps for, 162 growth hormone in, 35 transgenic, 158 vaccine against pseudorabies, 39 Symbiotic relationship between microorganisms and host plants, 30, 47

OCR for page 193
204 T Tagging of genes, 46,152,163 Technical development offices, 114-115 Technology transfer, 5,6, 7,14, 108-144 in alliances related to agriculture, 115-121 in consortia and research parks, 114 in consultancies, 112-113 economic incentives for, 108-109 in education and training programs, 113 in entrepreneurial companies, 115 in grants and contracts, 113-114 and interactions of universities, industry, and government, 109-123, 142 patenting and licensing in, 130-142,142-143 recommendations for, 13-14, 142-143 in technical development offices, 114-115 Temperatures and cold-tolerant gene in fish, 37, 159 and ice-minus bacteria in plants, 28 Thymidine kinase gene in vaccinia virus, inactivation of, 166-167 Ti plasmid from Agrobactcr~um tumefacicn~, 19, 80-81, 160, 172, 173, 176-178, 183 Tobacco, 20, 25, 156, 157, 172, 177 mosaic virus, 29, 162, 173 Tomatoes, 20, 25, 171, 177 Toxin genes, insecticidal, 31-32, 180 Training, 6, 90~107 in affiliate programs, 6, 13, 113, 142 and career development, 105 curricula development for, 105 federal support for, 92-93, 10~107 grants for, 105 INDE)f and interdisciplinary cooperation, 104-106 National Institutes of Health program for, 101-102, 103 National Science Foundation programs for, 100-101 private support of, 103 recommendations for, 11, 106-107 and retraining programs, 13, 84, 86, 90, 97, 106, 107 and scientific education, 95-100 types of programs for, 97 USDA programs for, 98 Traits, biological in plants, control of, 24-27 polygenic, 34, 160, 162 produced by traditional breeding or by molecular gene transfer, 17, 149-150 single-gene, 162 Transgenic animals, 158, 182 Transgenic plants, 29 Transient gene expression, 153, 155, 157, 164, 165 Transposable elements for gene transfer, 159, 174-176, 180 Triazine resistance, transfer of, 163 lkiticum monococcum, 156 Turkey retrovirus as vector in gene transfer, 169 Turnips, 171, 177 Tuskegee Institute, 52, 69 U Undergraduate education, fundamentals in, 97 Universities contracts with industry, 124 faculty recruitment in, 83, 86 funding of basic research in, 7 interaction with industry and government, 10~123, 142 interdisciplinary cooperation in, 010, 13, 105-106 land-grant, sec Land-grant universities patenting and licensing by, 135-137

OCR for page 193
INDEX private, collaboration with land-grant universities, 84, 85 retraining programs in, 13 support by private sector, 12, 88 support by state governments, 11 University of California Biotechnology Research and Education Program, 120 USDA, Cc Department of Agriculture V Vaccines for animal diseases, 3, 17, 22-23, 38-40 based on monoclonal antibodies, 161 vaccinia, use of, 39-40, 167 Vaccinia virus, 39-40, 166-167 Vegetative propagation, 20 Vectors for gene transfer, 19-20, 150,152-153,156, 163-174, 181 animal viruses in, 163-171 helper virus in, 169, 173 insertion, 167,170, 176 P-element, 1S8, 175 plant viruses in, 171-174 plasmids in, Cc Plasmids provirus in, 169 shuttle, 154, 165-166 transposable elements, 174-176, 181 for insects, 159 for plants, 159 Veterinary medicine schools, research in, 72, 78 Viruses control with RNA satellites, 173 diagnosis based on monoclonal antibodies, 161 plant, detection with DNA probes, 28-29 satellites of, 173 vaccines against, 3,17,22-23, 38-40 as vectors for gene transfer, 20, 150, 152,163-174,181 205 Vitamins, microbial production of, 43 W Waste disposal, bacteria in, 179 Waste products, use of, 42,43,44 Weed control agents, 25-26,27,179 Wheat, 156,172,178,183 Wisconsin Alumni Research Foundation, 135-136,139 y Yeast, 25,154,156,174,178 z Zein storage protein gene transfer, 177

OCR for page 193