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Appendix F

Excerpts from Draft Project Management Plan – Western Hillsboro

(2nd Draft, September 2000, South Florida Water Management District)

This appendix has been provided for the convenience of the reader, but the CROGEE has made no major editorial changes in the original text as written by the South Florida Water Management District. Minor editorial changes with respect to figures and appendices have been made for consistency with the rest of the report, and are noted [in italics within square brackets].

1.0 Project Information

1.1 Introduction

The Central and Southern Florida Project Comprehensive Review Study (April, 1999) -- developed jointly by the South Florida Water Management District (SFWMD) and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) – presents a framework for Everglades restoration. Now known as the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan (CERP), this plan contains 68 components, including critical restoration projects, operational changes to the Central and Southern Florida Project (C&SF), creation of water quality treatment facilities and other modifications with the principal goal of the creation of approximately 217,000 acres of new reservoirs and wetlands-based water treatment areas. The CERP achieves the restoration of more natural flows of water, including sheet flow, improved water quality, and more natural hydro-periods in the south Florida ecosystem. Improvements to native flora and fauna, including threatened and endangered species, will occur as a result of the restoration of the hydrologic conditions. The plan was also designed to enlarge the region's supply of fresh water and to improve how water is delivered to the natural system.

The purpose of the Western Hillsboro Aquifer Storage and Recovery (ASR) Pilot Project is to address uncertainties associated with some of the physical facilities that are proposed in the CERP. The pilot project will be designed to determine the feasibility, as well as optimum design, of a facility prior to embarking upon full-scale implementation of the ASR facilities. The formulation of alternative pilot project designs is intended to address cost effective means to address these uncertainties. Formulation of alternative plans for full scale implementation of the Western Hillsboro ASR component will be accomplished during the development of the Western Hillsboro ASR Project Implementation Report, which is scheduled to be initiated upon completion of this pilot project.

A large number of the construction features contained in the CERP were designed at various levels of detail based on information that was available during the plan formulation and evaluation phase. Many of the design assumptions for the components were based solely on output from the South Florida Water Management Model, which averages hydrologic conditions across a model comprised of grid cells with a spacing of 4 square miles. Consequently, the engineering details of the construction features, including the size and locations are conceptual. More site-specific analyses of the individual components are needed during the pre-construction engineering and design phase to determine the optimum size, location, and configuration of the facilities. To this end, the CERP contained a number of pilot projects, with the intention of acquiring more information. One of the pilot projects identified in the CERP is to test ASR technology in the Western Hillsboro Canal Basin (at a location formerly known as Site 1). A map showing the location of the Western Hillsboro site is provided in Figure 1 [ Figure F-1 in this report] (also Appendix A [not shown in this report]).

ASR technology is proposed as a significant storage component at Western Hillsboro and other locations delineated in the CERP. Advantages of ASR include:

  • Reduced costs compared with expensive, surface storage facilities

  • Underground storage in the upper Floridan Aquifer System (FAS) eliminates water losses due to evapotranspiration and seepage

  • Wells can be located in specific areas of greatest need, reducing water distribution costs

  • Requires limited land acquisition

  • Ability to recover large volumes of water during severe droughts, presumably when reservoir levels would be very low

These advantages are particularly important in south Florida where land acquisition costs are high, the availability of water is seasonal, and the underlying storage zones are expected to be geographically extensive.

The objective of the Western Hillsboro ASR Pilot Project is to test the feasibility of utilizing ASR technology for storage at this site and other sites identified in the CERP. Information gained from the pilot project will be used to develop an operating plan for the system, to refine the long-term operational goals of these and other ASR wells at the site, and to provide insight for future ASR projects, which may be constructed for similar purposes. If it is determined from this pilot project that ASR technology is feasible at the Western Hillsboro site, then the ASR system will be expanded. The expansion will most likely occur in stages, with a total of 30 ASR wells currently proposed at the site. Results from the pilot project will also be useful in determining the feasibility of utilizing ASR technology at other locations, especially within the lower east coast region.

Information to be collected and analyzed during construction and testing of the ASR wells will include:

  • Hydrogeologic data from potential storage intervals and confining layers

  • Recommendation of the most suitable ASR storage interval(s)

  • Quantification of recharge and recovery rates

  • Recovery efficiency of the ASR system under differing operating conditions

  • Water quality of the source water (surficial aquifer and surface water)

  • Water quality of the upper FAS

  • Water quality changes in the upper FAS

  • Water quality of the recovered water after storage



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Page 46 Appendix F Excerpts from Draft Project Management Plan – Western Hillsboro (2nd Draft, September 2000, South Florida Water Management District) This appendix has been provided for the convenience of the reader, but the CROGEE has made no major editorial changes in the original text as written by the South Florida Water Management District. Minor editorial changes with respect to figures and appendices have been made for consistency with the rest of the report, and are noted [in italics within square brackets]. 1.0 Project Information 1.1 Introduction The Central and Southern Florida Project Comprehensive Review Study (April, 1999) -- developed jointly by the South Florida Water Management District (SFWMD) and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) – presents a framework for Everglades restoration. Now known as the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan (CERP), this plan contains 68 components, including critical restoration projects, operational changes to the Central and Southern Florida Project (C&SF), creation of water quality treatment facilities and other modifications with the principal goal of the creation of approximately 217,000 acres of new reservoirs and wetlands-based water treatment areas. The CERP achieves the restoration of more natural flows of water, including sheet flow, improved water quality, and more natural hydro-periods in the south Florida ecosystem. Improvements to native flora and fauna, including threatened and endangered species, will occur as a result of the restoration of the hydrologic conditions. The plan was also designed to enlarge the region's supply of fresh water and to improve how water is delivered to the natural system. The purpose of the Western Hillsboro Aquifer Storage and Recovery (ASR) Pilot Project is to address uncertainties associated with some of the physical facilities that are proposed in the CERP. The pilot project will be designed to determine the feasibility, as well as optimum design, of a facility prior to embarking upon full-scale implementation of the ASR facilities. The formulation of alternative pilot project designs is intended to address cost effective means to address these uncertainties. Formulation of alternative plans for full scale implementation of the Western Hillsboro ASR component will be accomplished during the development of the Western Hillsboro ASR Project Implementation Report, which is scheduled to be initiated upon completion of this pilot project. A large number of the construction features contained in the CERP were designed at various levels of detail based on information that was available during the plan formulation and evaluation phase. Many of the design assumptions for the components were based solely on output from the South Florida Water Management Model, which averages hydrologic conditions across a model comprised of grid cells with a spacing of 4 square miles. Consequently, the engineering details of the construction features, including the size and locations are conceptual. More site-specific analyses of the individual components are needed during the pre-construction engineering and design phase to determine the optimum size, location, and configuration of the facilities. To this end, the CERP contained a number of pilot projects, with the intention of acquiring more information. One of the pilot projects identified in the CERP is to test ASR technology in the Western Hillsboro Canal Basin (at a location formerly known as Site 1). A map showing the location of the Western Hillsboro site is provided in Figure 1 [ Figure F-1 in this report] (also Appendix A [not shown in this report]). ASR technology is proposed as a significant storage component at Western Hillsboro and other locations delineated in the CERP. Advantages of ASR include: Reduced costs compared with expensive, surface storage facilities Underground storage in the upper Floridan Aquifer System (FAS) eliminates water losses due to evapotranspiration and seepage Wells can be located in specific areas of greatest need, reducing water distribution costs Requires limited land acquisition Ability to recover large volumes of water during severe droughts, presumably when reservoir levels would be very low These advantages are particularly important in south Florida where land acquisition costs are high, the availability of water is seasonal, and the underlying storage zones are expected to be geographically extensive. The objective of the Western Hillsboro ASR Pilot Project is to test the feasibility of utilizing ASR technology for storage at this site and other sites identified in the CERP. Information gained from the pilot project will be used to develop an operating plan for the system, to refine the long-term operational goals of these and other ASR wells at the site, and to provide insight for future ASR projects, which may be constructed for similar purposes. If it is determined from this pilot project that ASR technology is feasible at the Western Hillsboro site, then the ASR system will be expanded. The expansion will most likely occur in stages, with a total of 30 ASR wells currently proposed at the site. Results from the pilot project will also be useful in determining the feasibility of utilizing ASR technology at other locations, especially within the lower east coast region. Information to be collected and analyzed during construction and testing of the ASR wells will include: Hydrogeologic data from potential storage intervals and confining layers Recommendation of the most suitable ASR storage interval(s) Quantification of recharge and recovery rates Recovery efficiency of the ASR system under differing operating conditions Water quality of the source water (surficial aquifer and surface water) Water quality of the upper FAS Water quality changes in the upper FAS Water quality of the recovered water after storage

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Page 47 The full-scale Western Hillsboro Impoundment and ASR system, as outlined in the CERP, will store excess water from the Hillsboro Basin when available (typically in the wet season) and release water into the Hillsboro Canal to maintain canal stages during dry periods. ~ enlarge ~ Figure F-1

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Page 48 1.2 Description The Western Hillsboro ASR Pilot Project is located along the Hillsboro Canal in southern Palm Beach County. More specifically, it is located at the southern end of the Loxahatchee National Wildlife Refuge (LNWR), also known as Water Conservation Area (WCA) No. 1, where it intersects with the northeastern corner of WCA No. 2 ( Figure [F-]1). The 1,660-acre tract north of the Hillsboro Canal is SFWMD-owned, and has been used for improved pasture, nursery stock and aggregate mining. The majority of the site, with the exception of the western-most corner, is currently leased. The leased activities include cattle grazing, and may be expanded to include outdoor entertainment (e.g., skeet shooting, fly-fishing, etc.). In the CERP, the Western Hillsboro site is ultimately planned to contain a 2,460-acre surface water reservoir (by addition of 800 acres south of the Hillsboro Canal) as shown in Figure [F-]2. The completed ASR pilot project is anticipated to consist of the following components: Three ASR wells completed into the upper FAS, each with an anticipated capacity of 5 million gallons per day (mgd). A surface water collection system that will supply water to the ASR system. The source of the surface water (e.g. Hillsboro Canal) will depend on water quality testing. A groundwater collection system consisting of horizontal wells constructed along the perimeter and underneath the pilot reservoir. The horizontal wells will supply raw groundwater from the Surficial Aquifer System (SAS) to the ASR system. A 50-acre pilot impoundment that will be constructed and tested in conjunction with the horizontal wells. A pre-injection water treatment facility, if deemed necessary based on water quality testing A pre-discharge water treatment facility (for water recovered from the ASR wells, prior to discharge into a canal or reservoir). Piping between the source water collection system, the ASR wells, and discharge point(s) Surface facilities (e.g., pumps, valves, meters, instrumentation, etc.) to operate and monitor the system. Associated monitor wells (FAS and SAS) A proposed layout of the Western Hillsboro ASR Pilot Project is shown in Figure [F-]3. The layout indicates that shallow horizontal wells, in association with a pilot impoundment, will be used to supply water to the ASR wells for storage. Surface water may also be used as a source instead of, or in addition to, the horizontal wells. In this case, a surface water collection facility will be located at the most-appropriate location based on water quality. Locations of the ASR wells, monitor wells, and placement of the horizontal wells shown on Figure [F-]3 have been determined based on the objectives of the pilot project. The spacing of the ASR wells will be determined by testing to be completed on the existing exploratory ASR well at the site. Project features shown in Figure [F-]3 also consider the ultimate design of the full-scale impoundment and ASR system. A detailed description of the regional hydrogeology at the Western Hillsboro site is provided in Appendix B [not shown in this report, but available at http://www.evergladesplan.org/projects/pilot/hillsboro/hillsboro_pp.htm ]. The final design of the Western Hillsboro ASR Pilot Project, to be cost-shared by SFWMD and the USACE, will be based on additional studies and interagency coordination during the preparation of the Pilot Project Design Report (PPDR). 1.4 Background The Western Hillsboro ASR Pilot Project, as defined by the CERP, consisted of four ASR wells supplied with groundwater from a series of vertical, shallow wells. The framework of the pilot project, however, has changed since the description in the CERP. First, both ground-water and surface-water sources will be evaluated during the pilot project. The second change is that, if groundwater is used, shallow horizontal wells will be used instead of deeper vertical wells, as originally proposed in the CERP. This change was made because of water quality and quantity considerations at the site. In other words, horizontal wells are expected to yield more water and higher quality groundwater (i.e., lower chloride concentration) than the original vertical well concept. Lastly, and as a result of the change to horizontal wells, the planned pilot impoundment becomes integral to the pilot ASR project. This is because the horizontal wells will be installed underneath and along the perimeter of the pilot impoundment. This will allow more of the water in the impoundment to be captured by the horizontal wells for recharge into the ASR wells. As stated previously, a pilot impoundment will be constructed, tested, and operated in association with the ASR pilot project. The SFWMD recently completed, as part of the Lower East Coast Water Supply Plan, a feasibility study for an impoundment at the site (Montgomery-Watson, 1999) [no full reference given in original document]. The results of the study indicated that an impoundment could be constructed at the site, although there would be some expected water losses associated with evaporation and seepage into underlying strata. The SFWMD has made progress on the design of a 50-acre pilot impoundment at the site, which will include a groundwater collection system (horizontal wells) for the pilot ASR system. Test results from the operation of the pilot impoundment and collection system will help determine feasibility and design considerations for a full-scale impoundment and ASR system at the site. To date, the SFWMD has installed two wells at the western corner of the site. The first is a FAS monitor well – designed to evaluate water level and hydraulic information within zones of the FAS. The second is a 24-inch-diameter exploratory ASR well. The exploratory well was permitted by Florida Department of Environmental Protection's (FDEP's) Underground Injection Control (UIC) program in December 1999. Once the necessary water quality data have been collected, an application may be submitted to FDEP for an ASR construction permit. Figure [F-]4 and Figure [F-]5 present construction completion diagrams for the FAS monitor well and exploratory ASR well, respectively.

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Page 49 ~ enlarge ~ Figure F-2

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Page 50 ~ enlarge ~ Figure F-3

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Page 51 ~ enlarge ~ Figure F-4

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Page 52 ~ enlarge ~ Figure F-5

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Page 53 1.5 Related Projects The CERP includes one component that is directly related to this ASR pilot project. This is the full-scale impoundment with ASR at Western Hillsboro. The component, as described in the CERP, includes a 2,460-acre, above-ground impoundment with fluctuating water levels up to 6 feet above grade. The final design of the impoundment will be determined through the Water Preserve Area Feasibility Study. The full-scale component at Western Hillsboro also includes ASR technology with a capacity of injecting and recovering 150 mgd of surplus water from the basin. Groundwater from the surficial aquifer was assumed to be the source of water for storage in the ASR wells. The Western Hillsboro ASR Pilot Project is directly related to the full-scale component because it will be used to assess the feasibility of using ASR technology at this site, and other sites in the lower east coast region. Although not a CERP project, the SFWMD is currently co-funding the construction of an ASR well approximately five miles east of the pilot project location along the Hillsboro Canal. Palm Beach County is constructing one ASR well, along with a series of shallow, vertical water supply wells. Once completed, the Eastern Hillsboro ASR well will be used by the County to help meet its customers water demands, in addition to supplying regional benefits to the basin. 2.0 Project Scope The project scope provides a summary and general description of the tasks to be performed and services to be provided as part of this project. This scope is the basis for the more detailed Work Breakdown Structure, the project schedule, and cost estimate.... Task 1 – Initial Exploratory ASR Well and Monitor Well This task has been completed with the alteration of an existing SFWMD contract. Two wells were installed under the contract. One well is a FAS monitor well – designed to evaluate water level and hydraulic information within zones of the FAS. The second is a 24-inch-diameter exploratory ASR well. The exploratory well was permitted by FDEP's UIC program in December 1999. The exploratory well construction was completed in June 2000. Testing of the exploratory well (withdrawal only) will be completed in the next several months. The exploratory ASR well will be repermitted as an ASR well and is planned to be one of the three pilot ASR wells at the site. The FAS monitor well will also serve the pilot project in a monitoring capacity. Task 2 – Project Coordination and Public Outreach This task involves project coordination between the SFWMD, USACE, and other entities such as the Project Delivery Team that will be involved with the development and execution of this pilot project. This coordination is further explained in Section 5.0 Organization Breakdown Structure. Public involvement will be critical to the success of the pilot project. This will include soliciting the involvement of those parties interested in the development and progress of the project. Task 3 – Hydrogeologic and Hydrologic Investigations The primary purpose of this task is to collect existing hydrogeologic and hydrologic information that is relevant to the pilot project. This preliminary investigation will focus on literature review of existing data specific to the study area and the aquifer systems that may be encountered during the project. Information collected during this preliminary literature review will be used as a foundation to build a conceptual hydrogeologic model. This conceptual model will be used to in the formation of the regional groundwater model (Task 4). Information from the literature review will also be used to perform a desktop analysis of potential fracturing of the confining beds that overly the intended ASR storage zones. This fracture analysis will be updated as more information is collected during the construction of the ASR wells. The investigation also includes a water availability and demand analysis for the area. Task 4 – Modeling This task includes two types of modeling. First, a numerical, groundwater model will be used to simulate regional effects from ASR activities related to CERP. The regional groundwater model will be built upon the information gathered during the literature review and the conceptual hydrogeologic model development in Task 3. The regional model will be used to simulate such regional effects as changes in potentiometric heads within the FAS, and pressure buildup (and decrease) during ASR activities. Both of these effects were brought up by the ASR Issue Team. The second type of model is a geochemical model. Water samples from the existing FAS wells at the site will be used for the model. The model can be updated once cores from the intended storage zone are collected during the construction of the remaining ASR wells. Task 5 – Water Quality Characterization and Treatment This task includes three primary activities related to water quality and treatment. The first is the sampling and analysis of surface water in support of the permitting and design of the ASR pilot system. These surface water bodies include the Loxahatchee National Wildlife Refuge, Water Conservation Area No. 2, and the Hillsboro Canal. The second activity is a microbiological fate analysis. The purpose of the analysis is to evaluate the fate of coliform bacteria and other microorganisms in the subsurface. This is will be an important issue related to permitting a surface water ASR facility at the site. The final activity will be a water treatment analysis. Depending on the quality of the source water, some measure of pre- and/or post-treatment will be necessary for the ASR pilot system

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Page 54 Task 6 – Design, Permit, and Construct Pilot Impoundment and Horizontal Wells This task includes the design, permitting, and construction of the pilot impoundment and groundwater collection system (horizontal wells). The pilot project currently assumes that either or both surface water and groundwater will be recharged and stored in the FAS. In the CERP, it was assumed that the source water for the ASR pilot project would groundwater from traditional vertical wells. However, because of limitations in the groundwater quality and quantity at the site, horizontal wells in association with an above-ground impoundment were determined to be the optimal source of groundwater. Task7 – Test and Operate Pilot Impoundment and Horizontal Wells This task includes the operation and testing of the pilot impoundment in conjunction with the periodic testing of the horizontal wells. The purpose of this task is to test the effectiveness of the groundwater collection system with regards to water quantity and water quality. Based on the testing results, a determination will be made on the feasibility of using groundwater as source water for the ASR system. The pilot impoundment will be operated continually during this period in support of data collection for the full-scale impoundment proposed at the site. Task 8 – Project Development Process This task involves the processes necessary to complete the pilot project. The process starts with the preparation and approval of this Project Management Plan (PMP). The next step is the preparation of the Pilot Project Design Report (PPDR), which includes design and permitting phases of the project. In parallel to the PPDR, (National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) requirements will be addressed. Before significant construction can begin, the Project Cooperation Agreement (PCA) must be prepared and approved. Also included in the process is the State of Florida's Chapter 373.1501 requirements for state funding. Finally, a Technical Data Report (TDR) will be prepared at the end of the pilot project. The TDR will summarize the findings of the pilot project and make recommendations for further study. Information from the TDR will be used during preparation of the Project Implementation Report (PIR) of the full-scale ASR component of CERP. Task 9 – Permitting This task involves the permits necessary to construct and operate the pilot ASR system. Permitting requirements may include Class V Construction Permits, Operating Permits, Water Quality Criteria Exemptions (WQCEs), Limited Aquifer Exemptions (LAEs), an National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit, and a Water Use Permit. A FDEP UIC ASR Well Construction Permit will be needed before construction can begin. The UIC construction permit will also allow limited cycle testing (Task 11) of the pilot ASR system. The existing ASR exploratory well will be re-permitted in addition to permitting the remaining two ASR wells. If any secondary drinking water standards are exceeded, a WQCE from FDEP may also be required. An exemption may also be required for the exceedance of primary drinking water standards such as coliform (which is common in surface water). ). A LAE is the current regulatory relief mechanism allowed by FDEP if coliform is exceeded in the source water of an ASR system. EPA has also indicated that it may allow a risk-based approach to the exceedance of coliform prior to recharge into an ASR well. These regulatory issues should become clearer as the pilot project progresses. A NPDES permit will be required before cycle testing can begin. The NPDES permit covers the discharge of water recovered from the ASR wells back into a surface water body. The Water Use Permit would be required for the “use” of groundwater or surface water for storage in the ASR wells. Task 10 – Design and Construct Remaining ASR Wells, Monitor Wells, and Surface Facilities This task involves the design and construction of the two remaining ASR wells for the pilot project. The first exploratory ASR well was constructed under Task 1. Following the issuance of an ASR construction permit (Task 9), the remaining two ASR wells can be constructed. The construction of the remaining ASR wells will be similar to the existing well. The task also includes the construction of an additional FAS monitor well, and a SAS monitor well. The construction will conclude with the installation of the surface facilities. The surface facilities include the piping, pumps, instrumentation, etc. necessary to operate the ASR pilot system. Task 11 – Cycle Testing This task involves the cycle testing of the pilot ASR system. Once all the components of the ASR pilot project are constructed, permitted, and operational (ASR wells, monitor wells, treatment facility, etc.), then cycle testing may begin. This task involves operation, data collection, and reporting necessary to support the evaluation of the pilot project. Task 12 – Post-Construction Activities This task involves all those activities that will be necessary to complete before construction is deemed complete. These activities include certifications, credits, audits, and reports necessary to close out the project.