Research Priorities for Airborne Particulate Matter

• III •

Early Research Progress

Committee on Research Priorities for Airborne Particulate Matter

Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology

Commission on Life Sciences

Commission on Geosciences, Environment, and Resources

National Research Council

NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS
Washington, D.C.



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Research Priorities for Airborne Particulate Matter: • III • Research Priorities for Airborne Particulate Matter • III • Early Research Progress Committee on Research Priorities for Airborne Particulate Matter Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology Commission on Life Sciences Commission on Geosciences, Environment, and Resources National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C.

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Research Priorities for Airborne Particulate Matter: • III • NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS 2101 Constitution Ave., N.W. Washington, D.C. 20418 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This project was supported by Contract No. 68-C-98-003 between the National Academy of Sciences and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the view of the organizations or agencies that provided support for this project. Library of Congress Control Number: 2001091223 International Standard Book Number 0-309-07337-5 Additional copies of this report are available from: National Academy Press 2101 Constitution Ave., NW Box 285 Washington, DC 20055 800-624-6242 202-334-3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area) http://www.nap.edu Copyright 2001 by the National Academy of Sciences All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America

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Research Priorities for Airborne Particulate Matter: • III • THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES National Academy of Sciences National Academy of Engineering Institute of Medicine National Research Council The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. William A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts and Dr. William A. Wulf are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council.

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Research Priorities for Airborne Particulate Matter: • III • COMMITTEE ON RESEARCH PRIORITIES FOR AIRBORNE PARTICULATE MATTER J ONATHAN S AMET (Chair), Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland G LEN R. C ASS , Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta J UDITH C HOW , Desert Research Institute, Reno, Nevada B ART E. C ROES , California Air Resources Board, Sacramento R OBERT E. F ORSTER , University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia D ANIEL S. G REENBAUM , Health Effects Institute, Cambridge, Massachusetts P HILIP K. H OPKE , Clarkson University, Potsdam, New York P ETROS K OUTRAKIS, Harvard University, Boston, Massachusetts D ANIEL K REWSKI , University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario P AUL L IOY , University of Medicine and Dentistry–New Jersey, Piscataway J OE L. M AUDERLY , Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute, Albuquerque, New Mexico R OGER O. M CCLELLAN , Albuquerque, New Mexico G ÜNTER O BERDÖRSTER , University of Rochester, Rochester, New York R EBECCA P ARKIN , George Washington University, Washington, D.C. J OYCE E. P ENNER , University of Michigan, Ann Arbor R ICHARD S CHLESINGER , New York University School of Medicine, Tuxedo F RANK E. S PEIZER , Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts M ARK U TELL , University of Rochester, Rochester, New York R ONALD W HITE , American Lung Association and National Osteoporosis Foundation, Washington, D.C. W ARREN W HITE , Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri R ONALD W YZGA , Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, California T ERRY F. Y OSIE , American Chemistry Council, Arlington, Virginia Project Staff R AYMOND A. W ASSEL , Principal Staff Officer K ULBIR B AKSHI , Senior Staff Officer J OHN H OLMES , Senior Staff Officer E ILEEN A BT , Staff Officer N ORMAN G ROSSBLATT , Editor M IRSADA K ARALIC - L ONCAREVIC , Information Specialist T RACIE H OLBY , Senior Project Assistant E MILY S MAIL , Senior Project Assistant

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Research Priorities for Airborne Particulate Matter: • III • BOARD ON ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES AND TOXICOLOGY G ORDON O RIANS (Chair), University of Washington, Seattle J OHN D OULL , University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City D AVID A LLEN , University of Texas, Austin I NGRID C. B URKE , Colorado State University, Fort Collins T HOMAS B URKE , Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland G LEN R. C ASS , Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta W ILLIAM L. C HAMEIDES , Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta C HRISTOPHER B. F IELD , Carnegie Institute of Washington, Stanford, California J OHN G ERHART , University of California, Berkeley J. P AUL G ILMAN , Celera Genomics, Rockville, Maryland D ANIEL S. G REENBAUM , Health Effects Institute, Cambridge, Massachusetts B RUCE D. H AMMOCK , University of California, Davis R OGENE H ENDERSON , Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute, Albuquerque, New Mexico C AROL H ENRY , American Chemistry Council, Arlington, Virginia R OBERT H UGGETT , Michigan State University, East Lansing J AMES F. K ITCHELL , University of Wisconsin, Madison D ANIEL K REWSKI , University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario J AMES A. M AC M AHON , Utah State University, Logan C HARLES O'M ELIA , Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland W ILLEM F. P ASSCHIER , Health Council of the Netherlands, The Hague A NN P OWERS , Pace University School of Law, White Plains, New York K IRK S MITH , University of California, Berkeley T ERRY F. Y OSIE , American Chemistry Council, Arlington, Virginia Senior Staff J AMES J. R EISA , Director D AVID J. P OLICANSKY , Associate Director and Senior Program Director for Applied Ecology R AYMOND A. W ASSEL , Senior Program Director for Environmental Sciences and Engineering K ULBIR B AKSHI , Program Director for the Committee on Toxicology R OBERTA M. W EDGE , Program Director for Risk Analysis K. J OHN H OLMES , Senior Staff Officer

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Research Priorities for Airborne Particulate Matter: • III • COMMISSION ON LIFE SCIENCES M ICHAEL T. C LEGG (Chair), University of California, Riverside P AUL B ERG (Vice Chair), Stanford University, Stanford, California F REDERICK R. A NDERSON , Cadwalader, Wickersham & Taft, Washington, D.C. J OANNA B URGER , Rutgers University, Piscataway, New Jersey J AMES E. C LEAVER , University of California, San Francisco D AVID S. E ISENBERG , University of California, Los Angeles N EAL L. F IRST , University of Wisconsin, Madison D AVID J. G ALAS , Keck Graduate Institute of Applied Life Science, Claremont, California D AVID V. G OEDDEL , Tularik, Inc., South San Francisco, California A RTURO G OMEZ -P OMPA , University of California, Riverside C OREY S. G OODMAN , University of California, Berkeley J ON W. G ORDON , Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, New York D AVID G. H OEL , Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston B ARBARA S. H ULKA , University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill C YNTHIA J. K ENYON , University of California, San Francisco B RUCE R. L EVIN , Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia D AVID M. L IVINGSTON , Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts D ONALD R. M ATTISON , March of Dimes, White Plains, New York E LLIOT M. M EYEROWITZ , California Institute of Technology, Pasadena R OBERT T. P AINE , University of Washington, Seattle R ONALD R. S EDEROFF , North Carolina State University, Raleigh R OBERT R. S OKAL , State University of New York, Stony Brook C HARLES F. S TEVENS , The Salk Institute for Biological Studies, La Jolla, California S HIRLEY M. T ILGHMAN , Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey R AYMOND L. W HITE , DNA Sciences, Inc., Mountain View, California Staff W ARREN R. M UIR , Executive Director J ACQUELINE K. P RINCE , Financial Officer B ARBARA B. S MITH , Administrative Associate L AURA T. H OLLIDAY , Senior Program Assistant

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Research Priorities for Airborne Particulate Matter: • III • COMMISSION ON GEOSCIENCES, ENVIRONMENT, AND RESOURCES G EORGE M. H ORNBERGER (Chair), University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia R ICHARD A. C ONWAY , Union Carbide Corporation (Retired), S. Charleston, West Virginia L YNN G OLDMAN , Johns Hopkins School of Hygiene and Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland T HOMAS E. G RAEDEL , Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut T HOMAS J. G RAFF , Environmental Defense, Oakland, California E UGENIA K ALNAY , University of Maryland, College Park D EBRA K NOPMAN , Progressive Policy Institute, Washington, D.C. B RAD M OONEY, J. Brad Mooney Associates, Ltd., Arlington, Virginia H UGH C. M ORRIS , El Dorado Gold Corporation, Vancouver, British Columbia H. R ONALD P ULLIAM , University of Georgia, Athens M ILTON R USSELL , Joint Institute for Energy and Environment and University of Tennessee (Emeritus), Knoxville R OBERT J. S ERAFIN , National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, Colorado A NDREW R. S OLOW , Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, Massachusetts EAN Z EN , University of Maryland, College Park Staff R OBERT M. H AMILTON , Executive Director G REGORY H. S YMMES , Associate Executive Director J EANETTE S POON , Administrative and Financial Officer C HRISTINE H ENDERSON , Scientific Reports Officer S ANDI F ITZPATRICK , Administrative Associate

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Research Priorities for Airborne Particulate Matter: • III • OTHER REPORTS OF THE BOARD ON ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES AND TOXICOLOGY A Risk-Management Strategy for PCB-Contaminated Sediments (2001) Toxicological Effects of Methylmercury (2000) Strengthening Science at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency: Research-Management and Peer-Review Practices (2000) Scientific Frontiers in Developmental Toxicology and Risk Assessment (2000) Modeling Mobile-Source Emissions (2000) Toxicological Risks of Selected Flame-Retardant Chemicals (2000) Copper in Drinking Water (2000) Ecological Indicators for the Nation (2000) Waste Incineration and Public Health (1999) Hormonally Active Agents in the Environment (1999) Research Priorities for Airborne Particulate Matter: I. Immediate Priorities and a Long-Range Research Portfolio (1998); II. Evaluating Research Progress and Updating the Portfolio (1999) Ozone-Forming Potential of Reformulated Gasoline (1999) Risk-Based Waste Classification in California (1999) Arsenic in Drinking Water (1999) Brucellosis in the Greater Yellowstone Area (1998) The National Research Council's Committee on Toxicology: The First 50 Years (1997) Toxicologic Assessment of the Army's Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Dispersion Tests (1997) Carcinogens and Anticarcinogens in the Human Diet (1996) Upstream: Salmon and Society in the Pacific Northwest (1996) Science and the Endangered Species Act (1995) Wetlands: Characteristics and Boundaries (1995) Biologic Markers (5 reports, 1989-1995) Review of EPA's Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (3 reports, 1994-1995) Science and Judgment in Risk Assessment (1994) Ranking Hazardous Waste Sites for Remedial Action (1994) Pesticides in the Diets of Infants and Children (1993) Issues in Risk Assessment (1993) Setting Priorities for Land Conservation (1993) Protecting Visibility in National Parks and Wilderness Areas (1993) Dolphins and the Tuna Industry (1992)

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Research Priorities for Airborne Particulate Matter: • III • Hazardous Materials on the Public Lands (1992) Science and the National Parks (1992) Animals as Sentinels of Environmental Health Hazards (1991) Assessment of the U.S. Outer Continental Shelf Environmental Studies Program, Volumes I-IV (1991-1993) Human Exposure Assessment for Airborne Pollutants (1991) Monitoring Human Tissues for Toxic Substances (1991) Rethinking the Ozone Problem in Urban and Regional Air Pollution (1991) Decline of the Sea Turtles (1990) Copies of these reports may be ordered from the National Academy Press (800) 624-6242 (202) 334-3313 www.nap.edu

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Research Priorities for Airborne Particulate Matter: • III • Preface The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), other federal and state government agencies, and nongovernment organizations are conducting a major multiyear research program to improve scientific understanding of airborne particulate matter and its effects on human health. An overall objective is to reduce uncertainties in the scientific evidence used to guide regulation of airborne particulate matter in the United States. At the request of Congress and EPA, the National Research Council's (NRC's) Committee on Research Priorities for Airborne Particulate Matter proposed, in its first report, a conceptual framework to guide the formation of that program, and the committee is now independently monitoring the program's implementation. The first of the committee's four planned reports, Research Priorities for Airborne Particulate Matter: I. Immediate Priorities and a Long-Range Research Portfolio, was released in 1998. It identified 10 high-priority research topics linked to key policy-related scientific uncertainties and presented a 13-year “research investment portfolio” containing recommended short-term and long-term phasing and estimated costs of research on each topic. Congress, EPA, and the scientific community have given strong support to the committee 's recommendations and have implemented substantial changes in research efforts in response to them. The committee's second report, Research Priorities for Airborne Particulate Matter: II. Evaluating Research Progress and Updating the Portfolio, released in 1999, described the committee's plans for monitoring the progress of re-

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Research Priorities for Airborne Particulate Matter: • III • search. In addition, the research recommendations from the committee 's first report were updated, and recommendations related to emissions and air-quality models were substantially revised. This, the committee's third report, monitors the progress of the research begun in 1998 or later to address the priority research topics identified by the committee. Although much research has been initiated, not enough time has elapsed for many of the projects to be completed and their results reported. Therefore, this report should be viewed as an interim assessment of research progress. In preparing its fourth report, which is due near the end of 2002, the committee will have the opportunity to evaluate a more extensive body of research results. This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the NRC's Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this report: Arthur DuBois, Yale University Medical School, New Haven, Connecticut; Robert Frosch, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts; Carol Henry, American Chemistry Council, Arlington, Virginia; George Hidy, ENVAIR, Placitas, New Mexico; Morton Lippmann, New York University Medical School, Tuxedo, New York; Thomas Peterson, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona; Robert Phalen, University of California, Irvine, California; and George Wolff, retired, Farmington, Michigan. Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations, nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Donald Mattison, March of Dimes Birth Defects Foundation. Appointed by the National Research Council, he was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution. The committee gratefully acknowledges John Bachmann, Judith Graham, Lester Grant, Peter Preuss, Kenneth Reid, Lawrence Reiter, Richard Scheffe, John Vandenberg, and James Vickery of EPA for making presentations or

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Research Priorities for Airborne Particulate Matter: • III • providing information to the committee. In addition, we are grateful to Maria Constantini and others at the Health Effects Institute for developing an internet-based inventory of particulate matter research projects. We are grateful for the assistance of the NRC staff in preparing the report. Staff members who contributed to this effort are Raymond Wassel, principal staff officer for the committee; James J. Reisa, director of the Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology; Kulbir Bakshi and K. John Holmes, senior staff officers; Eileen Abt and Laurie Geller, staff officers; Norman Grossblatt, editor; Ruth Crossgrove, publications manager; Mirsada Karalic-Loncarevic, information specialist; Tracie Holby and Emily Smail, senior program assistants; and Ramya Chari, project assistant. Finally, I would like to thank all the members of the committee for their dedicated efforts throughout the development of this report. Jonathan Samet, Chair Committee on Research Priorities for Airborne Particulate Matter

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Research Priorities for Airborne Particulate Matter: • III • Contents     EXECUTIVE SUMMARY   1  1   THE COMMITTEE'S TASK AND THE PARTICULATE -MATTER RESEARCH ENTERPRISE   21      The Committee's Task,   21      The Particulate-Matter Research Program,   32      Organization of This Report,   36  2   EVALUATING IMPLEMENTATION AND PROGRESS OF RESEARCH   37      Applying the Committee's Research Criteria,   37      Sources of Information,   45  3   REVIEW OF RESEARCH PROGRESS AND STATUS   47      Introduction,   47     Research Topic 1.  Outdoor Measures Versus Actual Human Exposures,   48     Research Topic 2.  Exposures of Susceptible Subpopulations to Toxic Particulate-Matter Components,   56     Research Topic 3.  Characterization of Emission Sources,   57     Research Topic 4.  Air-Quality Model Development and Testing,   66     Research Topic 5.  Assessment of Hazardous Particulate-Matter Components,   76     Research Topic 6.  Dosimetry: Deposition and Fate of Particles in the Respiratory Tract,   87     Research Topic 7.  Combined Effects of Particulate Matter and Gaseous Pollutants,   99

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Research Priorities for Airborne Particulate Matter: • III •     Research Topic 8.  Susceptible Subpopulations,   104     Research Topic 9:  Mechanisms of Injury,   112     Research Topic 10:  Analysis and Measurement,   122  4   O VERALL F INDINGS AND R ECOMMENDATIONS   130      Key Findings and Recommendations Concerning Scientific Value, Decisionmaking Value, and Timing and Feasibility of Particulate-Matter Research,   130      Implementation of Supersite and Speciation Programs: A Case Study,   137      Overarching Issues Related to Implementation of Particulate-Matter Research Program,   141      Overall Evaluation of Particulate-Matter Research Progress,   146      What Is Success?   147     REFERENCES   149  APPENDIX A:   BIOGRAPHICAL I NFORMATION ON THE COMMITTEE ON RESEARCH PRIORITIES FOR AIRBORNE PARTICULATE MATTER   156  APPENDIX B:   THE COMMITTEE'S STATEMENT OF TASK   168 TABLES  TABLE ES-1   EPA Funding for PM Research and Related Technical Work (millions of dollars),   2  TABLE 1.1   EPA's Review and Implementation Timetable Particular-Matter Standards,   22  TABLE 1.2   Key Scientific Uncertainties Related to the Source-to Response Framework,   25  TABLE 1.3   Committee's Research Investment Portfolio for FY 2000-2010: Timing and Estimated Costs ($ million/year in 1998 dollars) of Recommended Research on Particulate Matter,   27  TABLE 1.4   Committee's Technical-Support Estimates: Timing and Estimated Costs ($ million/year in 1998 dollars) of Additional Technical Work Needed for Implementation of Emissions Control Programs for Airborne Particles,   28  TABLE 1.5   EPA Intramural and Extramural PM-Research Enacted Budgets and Implementation for FY 1998-2001 ($ million/year in actual dollars),   29

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Research Priorities for Airborne Particulate Matter: • III •  TABLE 3.1   Current Studies Relevant to Research Topic 1,   52  TABLE 3.2   PM Emissions-Related Research,   61  TABLE 3.3   Summary of Current Studies Identified by EPA As Sources of Information on Atmospheric Processes,   68  TABLE 3.4   Number of Epidemiological Studies Relating Health Outcomes to Target Pollutants,   84  TABLE 3.5   Summary of Dosimetry Projects and Reports,   89  TABLE 3.6   Gaseous-Copollutant Studies,   101  TABLE 3.7   Controlled-Exposure Studies on Effects of PM on Susceptible Subpopulations,   107  TABLE 3.8   Mechanistic Studies,   113 FIGURE  FIGURE 1.1   A general framework for integrating particulate-matter research,   24

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Research Priorities for Airborne Particulate Matter: • III • Research Priorities for Airborne Particulate Matter: III. Early Research Progress

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