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THE PARTNERSHIP FOR ADVANCING TECHNOLOGY IN HOUSING

Year 2000 Progress Assessment of the PATH Program

Committee for Oversight and Assessment of the Partnership for Advancing Technology in Housing

Board on Infrastructure and the Constructed Environment

Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences

National Research Council

NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL



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Page i THE PARTNERSHIP FOR ADVANCING TECHNOLOGY IN HOUSING Year 2000 Progress Assessment of the PATH Program Committee for Oversight and Assessment of the Partnership for Advancing Technology in Housing Board on Infrastructure and the Constructed Environment Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences National Research Council NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL

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Page ii NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20418 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competencies and with regard for appropriate balance. This study was funded by the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development, Contract Number C-OPC-21756. All opinions, findings, conclusions, and recommendations expressed herein are those of the National Research Council and do not necessarily reflect the views of the Department of Housing and Urban Development. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data International Standard Book Number 0-309-07336-7 Copyright 2000 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Available from: Board on Infrastructure and the Constructed Environment National Research Council 2101 Constitution Avenue, NW Washington, DC, 20418 Printed in the United States of America.

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Page iii THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES Advisers to the Nation on Science, Engineering, and Medicine National Academy of Sciences National Academy of Engineering Institute of Medicine National Research Council The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. William A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is ad-ministered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts and Dr. William A. Wulf are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council.

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Page iv COMMITTEE ON OVERSIGHT AND ASSESSMENT OF THE PARTNERSHIP FOR ADVANCING TECHNOLOGY IN HOUSING C.R. “CHUCK” PENNONI, chair, Pennoni Associates, Inc., Philadelphia, Pennsylvania ERIC BELSKY, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts ROBERT BLANCETT, USG Research & Technology Inc., Libertyville, Illinois ERIC BURNETT, Pennsylvania State University, University Park PAUL R. FISETTE, University of Massachusetts, Amherst KAREN L. GEORGE, E SOURCE, Inc., Boulder Colorado MANUEL GONZALEZ, KTGY Group, Inc., Irvine, California ASHOK GOSWAMI, National Conference of States on Building Codes and Standards, Inc., Herndon, Virginia CHARLES J. KIBERT, University of Florida, Gainesville TRICIA PARKS, Parks Associates, Dallas, Texas ROBERT PLEASURE, Center to Protect Workers' Rights, Washington, D.C. MICHAEL PYATOK, Pyatok Associates, Inc., Oakland, California TIMOTHY REINHOLD, Clemson University, Clemson, South Carolina WALTER R. YOUNG, JR., Champion Enterprises, Inc., Auburn Hills, Michigan Staff RICHARD G. LITTLE, director, Board on Infrastructure and the Constructed Environment JOHN A. WALEWSKI, project officer (until 7/31/00) MICHAEL D. COHN, project officer (from 8/1/00) LORI J. VASQUEZ, administrative associate (until 11/1/00) KIMBERLY GOLDBERG, administrative associate (from 1/2/01) NICOLE E. LONGSHORE, project assistant

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Page v BOARD ON INFRASTRUCTURE AND THE CONSTRUCTED ENVIRONMENT RICHARD WRIGHT, chair, National Institute of Standards and Technology (retired), Gaithersburg, Maryland GREGORY BAECHER, University of Maryland, College Park JONATHAN BARNETT, planning consultant, Washington, D.C. MAX BOND, Davis, Brody, Bond, LLP, New York, New York JACK BUFFINGTON, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville MARY COMERIO, University of California, Berkeley CLAIRE FELBINGER, American University, Washington, D.C. PAUL GILBERT, Parsons, Brinckerhoff, Quade, and Douglas, Seattle, Washington AMY GLASMEIER, Pennsylvania State University, University Park YACOV HAIMES, University of Virginia, Charlottesville JEREMY ISENBERG, Weidlinger Associates, New York, New York MARTHA ROZELLE, The Rozelle Group, Ltd., Phoenix, Arizona WILL SECRE, Masterbuilders, Inc., Cleveland, Ohio DAVID SKIVEN, General Motors Corporation, Detroit, Michigan SARAH SLAUGHTER, MOCA, Inc., Newton, Massachusetts DEAN STEPHAN, Charles Pankow Builders (retired) Laguna Beach, California ERIC TEICHOLZ, Graphic Systems, Inc., Cambridge, Massachusetts RAE ZIMMERMAN, New York University, New York Staff RICHARD LITTLE, director, Board on Infrastructure and the Constructed Environment LYNDA STANLEY, executive director, Federal Facilities Council MICHAEL COHN, project officer GAIL KELLY, research associate KIMBERLY GOLDBERG, administrative associate NICOLE LONGSHORE, project assistant

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Page vi Acknowledgments This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the NRC's Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this report: Guido Francescato, University of Maryland, College Park Walter Grondzik, Florida A&M University, Tallahassee Boyd C. Paulson, Stanford University, Stanford, California William B. Rose, University of Illinois, Champaign Marty Rozelle, The Rozelle Group, Ltd, Phoenix, Arizona. John K. Spear, Richwood Development Corporation, Houston, Texas Madan Syal, Michigan State University, East Lansing Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Gary Byrd, appointed by the NRC Report Review Committee, who was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution.

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Page vii Contents EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 1 1    INTRODUCTION 7     Scope of the Review, 8     Organization of the Report, 8     References, 9 2    NEED FOR THE PARTNERSHIP FOR ADVANCING TECHNOLOGY IN HOUSING 10     Federal Housing Policy, 10     Government Intervention in Private Markets, 11     Strengthening the Technology Infrastructure, 12     Conclusions and Recommendations, 15     References, 16 3    PROGRAM GOALS AND OBJECTIVES 17     Background, 17     Review of PATH Goals, 18     Conclusions, 22     Recommendations, 25     References, 25 4    ORGANIZATION AND MANAGEMENT 28     PATH Program Structure, 28     Relationship Between Federal Partners and Industry, 28     Programmatic Issues, 30     Recommendation, 31     References, 32 5    PROGRAM IMPLEMENTATION 33     Forces Affecting the Adoption of New Technologies, 33     Preliminary Evaluation of PATH Implementation Activities, 38     Conclusions and Recommendations, 42     References, 43 APPENDIXES     A    Biographies of Committee Members 47     B    Presentations to the Committee 52     C    Historical Case Studies of Technology Diffusion 54

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Page viii Acronyms BLS Bureau of Labor Statistics DOE Department of Energy EPA Environmental Protection Agency FEMA Federal Emergency Management Agency FPL Forest Products Laboratory FY fiscal year HUD Department of Housing and Urban Development ICC International Code Council IMIS Integrated Management Information System NAHBRC National Association of Home Builders Research Center NES BIC National Evaluation Service Building Innovation Center NIST National Institute of Standards and Technology NOFA Notice of Funding Availability NRC National Research Council OSHA Occupational Safety and Health Administration PATH Partnership for Advancing Technology in Housing PD&R Office of Policy Development and Research R&D research and development RWG Residential Working Group SIC Standard Industrial Classification USDA United States Department of Agriculture