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The system is detonated manually. Until a new system is developed, the Defense Agency will use “directional-multiple-shots” as an alternative weapon (ICBL, 1999).

RUSSIA

Although Russia is not a party to the Ottawa Convention, it has been focusing its efforts on the research and development of landmine alternatives (ICBL, 2000). Few details are available, but researchers appear to be improving antipersonnel munitions that would not be considered APL under the convention, including munitions actuated by an operator by radio, wire, or automatically after a definite period of time. Research on alternatives is being conducted by the State Research and Development Engineer Institute and the Science-Research Machinery Building Institute (ICBL, 1999).

The following 107 countries had ratified or acceded to the Ottawa Convention as of September 2000:

SWITZERLAND

Switzerland conducted an investigation of nonlethal APL alternatives, video monitors, and various technical sensors. However, the program did not lead to feasible results and has been terminated (ICBL, 2000).

UNITED KINGDOM

The U.K. Ministry of Defence is investigating possible nonlethal alternatives, but it is not yet known whether these will be produced (ICBL, 2000).

Albania

Djibouti

Luxembourg

Rwanda

Andorra

Dominica

Macedonia, FYR

Saint Kitts and Nevis

Antigua and Barbuda

Dominican

Republic Madagascar

Saint Lucia

Argentina

Ecuador

Maldives

Samoa

Australia

El Salvador

Malaysia

San Marino

Austria

Equatorial Guinea

Malawi

Senegal

Bahamas

Fiji

Mali

Seychelles

Bangladesh

France

Mauritania

Slovakia

Barbados

Gabon

Mauritius

Slovenia

Belgium

Germany

Mexico

Solomon Islands

Belize

Ghana

Moldova

South Africa

Benin

Grenada

Monaco

Spain

Bolivia

Guatemala

Mozambique

Swaziland

Bosnia and Herzegovina

Guinea

Nauru

Sweden

Botswana

Holy See

Namibia

Switzerland

Brazil

Honduras

Netherland

Tajikistan

Bulgaria

Hungary

New Zealand

Thailand

Burkina Faso

Iceland

Nicaragua

Togo

Cambodia

Ireland

Niger

Trinidad and Tobago

Canada

Italy

Niue

Tunisia

Chad

Jamaica

Norway

Turkmenistan

Colombia

Japan

Panama

Uganda

Costa Rica

Jordan

Paraguay

United Kingdom

Côte d'Ivoire

Kiribati

Peru

Venezuela

Croatia

Lesotho

Philippines

Yemen

Czech Republic

Liberia

Portugal

Zimbabwe

Denmark

Liechtenstein

Qatar

 

Between September 2000 and the publication of this report, two countries ratified the convention:

Romania

United Republic of Tanzania



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