INLAND NAVIGATION SYSTEM PLANNING: The Upper Mississippi River—Illinois Waterway

Committee to Review the Upper Mississippi River-Illinois Waterway Navigation System Feasibility Study

Water Science and Technology Board

Division on Earth and Life Studies

Transportation Research Board

National Research Council

NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS
Washington, D.C.



The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement



Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.

OCR for page R1
INLAND NAVIGATION SYSTEM PLANNING: The Upper Mississippi River—Illinois Waterway INLAND NAVIGATION SYSTEM PLANNING: The Upper Mississippi River—Illinois Waterway Committee to Review the Upper Mississippi River-Illinois Waterway Navigation System Feasibility Study Water Science and Technology Board Division on Earth and Life Studies Transportation Research Board National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C.

OCR for page R1
INLAND NAVIGATION SYSTEM PLANNING: The Upper Mississippi River—Illinois Waterway NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20418 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competencies and with regard for appropriate balance. Support for this project was provided by the Department of the Army under Contract No. DASW01-00-C-3017. International Standard Book Number 0-309-07405-3 Inland Navigation System Planning: The Upper Mississippi River-Illinois Waterway is available from the National Academy Press, 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20418 (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area); internet < http://www.nap.edu>. Cover design by Van Nguyen, National Academy Press. Photos courtesy of Jon Duyvejonck, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Photo on back Cover, Bridge with Moon, J&D Richardson Stock Photography, Memphis, TN, http://www.jdrichardson.com/memphis1.html Copyright 2001 by the National Academy of Sciences All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America

OCR for page R1
INLAND NAVIGATION SYSTEM PLANNING: The Upper Mississippi River—Illinois Waterway THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES Advisers to the Nation on Science, Engineering, and Medicine National Academy of Sciences National Academy of Engineering Institute of Medicine National Research Council The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievement of engineers. Dr. William A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts and Dr. William A. Wulf are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council.

OCR for page R1
INLAND NAVIGATION SYSTEM PLANNING: The Upper Mississippi River—Illinois Waterway This page in the original is blank.

OCR for page R1
INLAND NAVIGATION SYSTEM PLANNING: The Upper Mississippi River—Illinois Waterway COMMITTEE TO REVIEW THE UPPER MISSISSIPPI RIVER-ILLINOIS WATERWAY NAVIGATION SYSTEM FEASIBILITY STUDY LESTER B. LAVE, Chair, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania PHILLIP BAUMEL, Iowa State University, Ames KENNETH D. BOYER, Michigan State University, Ann Arbor MICHAEL S. BRONZINI, George Mason University, Fairfax, Virginia KENNETH L. CASAVANT, Washington State University, Pullman BONNIE G. COLBY, University of Arizona, Tucson JONATHAN P. DEASON, George Washington University, Washington, D.C. JOSÉ A. GÓMEZ-IBÁNEZ, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts DELON HAMPTON, Delon Hampton & Associates, Chartered, Washington, D.C. EDWIN E. HERRICKS, University of Illinois, Urbana DAVID H. MOREAU, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill NRC Staff JEFFREY W. JACOBS, Study Director, Water Science and Technology Board ANITA A. HALL, Senior Project Assistant, Water Science and Technology Board JOSEPH MORRIS, Senior Staff Officer, Transportation Research Board SUSAN GARBINI, Senior Staff Officer, Transportation Research Board

OCR for page R1
INLAND NAVIGATION SYSTEM PLANNING: The Upper Mississippi River—Illinois Waterway WATER SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOBY BOARD HENRY J. VAUX, Jr., Chair, Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of California, Oakland RICHARD G. LUTHY, Vice Chair, Stanford University, California RICHELLE M. ALLEN-KING, GREGORY B. BAECHER, University of Maryland, College Park JOHN BRISCOE, The World Bank, Washington, D.C. EFI FOUFOULA-GEORGIOU, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis STEVEN P. GLOSS, University of Wyoming, Laramie WILLIAM A. JURY, University of California, Riverside GARY S. LOGSDON, Black & Veatch, Cincinnati, Ohio DIANE M. MCKNIGHT, University of Colorado, Boulder JOHN W. MORRIS, J.W. Morris Ltd., Arlington, Virginia PHILIP A. PALMER (Retired), E.I. du Pont de Nemours & Co., Wilmington, Delaware REBECCA T. PARKIN, George Washington University, Washington, D.C. RUTHERFORD H. PLATT, University of Massachusetts, Amherst JOAN B. ROSE, University of South Florida, St. Petersburg JERALD L. SCHNOOR, University of Iowa, Iowa City R. RHODES TRUSSELL, Montgomery Watson, Pasadena, California Staff STEPHEN D. PARKER, Director LAURA J. EHLERS, Senior Staff Officer JEFFREY W. JACOBS, Senior Staff Officer MARK C. GIBSON, Staff Officer WILLIAM S. LOGAN, Staff Officer M. JEANNE AQUILINO, Administrative Associate PATRICIA A. JONES, Staff Associate ANITA A. HALL, Administrative Assistant ELLEN A. DE GUZMAN, Senior Project Assistant ANIKE L. JOHNSON, Project Assistant NORA BRANDON, Project Assistant

OCR for page R1
INLAND NAVIGATION SYSTEM PLANNING: The Upper Mississippi River—Illinois Waterway TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE Chairman: Martin Wachs, Director, Institute of Transportation Studies, University of California, Berkeley Vice Chairman: John M. Samuels, Senior Vice President—Operations Planning and Support (Operations Division), Norfolk Southern Corporation, Norfolk, Virginia Executive Director: Robert E. Skinner, Jr., Transportation Research Board Thomas F. Barry, Jr., Secretary of Transportation, Florida Department of Transportation, Tallahassee Jack E. Buffington, Associate Director and Research Professor, Mack-Blackwell National Rural Transportation Study Center, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville Sarah C. Campbell, President, TransManagement, Inc., Washington, D.C. Anne P. Canby, Secretary of Transportation, Delaware Department of Transportation, Dover E. Dean Carlson, Secretary of Transportation, Kansas Department of Transportation, Topeka Joanne F. Casey, President, Intermodal Association of North America, Greenbelt, Maryland John L. Craig, Director, Nebraska Department of Roads, Lincoln Robert A. Frosch, Senior Research Fellow, Belfer Center for Science & International Affairs. John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts Gorman Gilbert, Director, Oklahoma Transportation Center, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater Genevieve Giuliano, Professor, School of Policy, Planning, and Development, University of Southern California, Los Angeles Lester A. Hoel, L.A. Lacy Distinguished Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville H. Thomas Kornegay, Executive Director, Port of Houston Authority, Houston, Texas Thomas F. Larwin, General Manager, San Diego Metropolitan Transit Development Board, San Diego, California Bradley L. Mallory, Secretary of Transportation, Pennsylvania Department of Transportation, Harrisburg Jeffrey R. Moreland, Senior Vice President—Law and Chief of Staff, Burlington Northern Santa Fe Corporation, Fort Worth, Texas Sid Morrison, Secretary of Transportation, Washington State Department of Transportation. Olympia John P. Poorman, Staff Director, Capital District Transportation Committee, Albany, New York Wayne Shackelford, Senior Vice President, Gresham Smith & Partners, Alpharetta, Georgia (Past Chairman, 1999) Michael S. Townes, Executive Director, Transportation District Commission of Hampton Roads, Hampton, Virginia Thomas R. Warne, Executive Director, Utah Department of Transportation, Salt Lake City Arnold F. Wellman, Jr., Vice President, Corporate Public Affairs, United Parcel Service, Washington, D.C.

OCR for page R1
INLAND NAVIGATION SYSTEM PLANNING: The Upper Mississippi River—Illinois Waterway James A. Wilding, President and CEO, Metropolitan Washington Airports Authority, Alexandria, Virginia M. Gordon Wolman, Professor of Geography and Environmental Engineering, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland David N. Wormley, Dean of Engineering, Pennsylvania State University, University Park (Past Chairman, 1997)

OCR for page R1
INLAND NAVIGATION SYSTEM PLANNING: The Upper Mississippi River—Illinois Waterway Preface In its study of the prospects for extending several locks on the Upper Mississippi River-Illinois Waterway system, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers found itself in the middle of a clash of powerful forces and changing values. The traditional argument has been that the federal government must do everything it can to open the continent to people, promote commerce, and aid exporters. This view continues to be supported by some members of Congress, farmers and tow companies from the areas surrounding these rivers, as well as the Port of New Orleans and exporters. Holders of this view support improvements to navigation system infrastructure on the UMR–IWW in order to carry grain to New Orleans for export. They contend that if tows are now twice as long as in the past, the U.S. should extend the locks to relieve congestion and improve the competitiveness of grain farmers. Complicating this view is a rapidly changing world in which the U.S. has gone from a position of feeding much of the world after World War II to a position of competing, not always successfully, against low cost grain exports from South America and other places. The market for American grain over the next five years is highly uncertain. The market over the next century is unknowable. Meanwhile, those promoting environmental values now argue that improving navigation must not needlessly damage recreation and river ecology. These same interests also seek reversal of some of the profound changes in river ecology brought about by transforming a free flowing river into a series of pools. Most Americans gave little attention to environmental pollution in 1960; certainly few knew or cared about changes in river ecology. Many environmental views that were extreme in 1970 have become mainstream views in 2001. In this setting, the Corps was charged with analyzing the benefits and costs of a $1 billion improvement in transportation infrastructure, the extensions of several locks on the UMR–IWW. The benefits arise from the demand for U.S. grain in other nations. Forecasting the demand for even the next few years is difficult. Costs include construction and operations. These costs could be increased greatly by insisting that new infrastructure changes begin to reverse the changes in river ecology caused by the past construction of the locks and dams and the passage of tows. Indeed, the benefit of the infrastructure change would be reduced to zero at the time that the public demanded that the dams be breached to allow a free flowing river.

OCR for page R1
INLAND NAVIGATION SYSTEM PLANNING: The Upper Mississippi River—Illinois Waterway While the mission of this committee never made us the focus of the contending parties, our two meetings in which we asked for public input made the controversy abundantly clear to us. At a narrow, technical level, we pored over the Corps' analyses of the price sensitivity of the current and future demand for barge shipment, the effects of additional traffic on congestion and thus on shipping costs, and the analysis of the environmental effects of construction and the passage of tows. The complexity of these tasks would test any government agency. Accomplishing them in the midst of heated controversy makes them all the more difficult. No member of the committee is "on the line" in the same way that Corps analysts are. Most of us have the luxury of examining issues at length and without contending parties scrutinizing each step. Thus, we appreciate the difficulty of the Corps' task. Nonetheless, we found that substantial improvements can be made in the Corps' analysis that will help inform decision-makers about the implications of this and other waterway projects. We urge Congress, the Department of Defense, and the Corps to give careful attention to improving the analyses so that society can be better informed about the implications of alternative courses of action. The committee's study was conducted with appreciation of the analytical and political challenges facing the Corps. We greatly appreciate the Corps of Engineers ' cooperation and assistance in this study and would especially like to thank Phillip Anderson, Ken Barr, Jim Johnson, Gary Loss, Denny Lundberg, Rich Manguno, Dave Tipple, and Hans van Winkle. We also thank Joseph Westphal and James Smyth from the office of the Assistant Secretary of the Army for Civil Works for their cooperation and advice. Thanks are also due to Chris Brescia of MARC 2000 (St. Louis), George Dusenberry of the Northeast-Midwest Center (Washington, D.C.), Jon Duyvejonck of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Rock Island, Illinois), Ken Lubinski of the U.S. Geological Survey (LaCrosse, Wisconsin), and Tim Searchinger of Environmental Defense (Washington, D.C.), all of whom spoke with our committee. We are also grateful to the many citizens and interest group representatives who spoke with and educated our committee. We also thank the Corps of Engineers' staff in the St. Louis district office for hosting an informative and enjoyable mid-August field trip to locks and dams 25 and 26. The committee could not have completed its task without the able assistance of Steve Parker, Steve Godwin, Joe Morris, Susan Garbini, and Anita Hall. We are especially indented to Jeffrey Jacobs who served as our chief staff officer and helped us craft the language that said what we wanted to say. Lester B. Lave Chairman

OCR for page R1
INLAND NAVIGATION SYSTEM PLANNING: The Upper Mississippi River—Illinois Waterway Acknowledgment of Reviewers This report was reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the NRC's Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their reviews of this report: Gregory B. Baecher, University of Maryland John Cairns, Jr., Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University Jeanne N. Clarke, University of Arizona Stephen W. Fuller, Texas A&M University Gerald E. Galloway, Jr., International Joint Commission John R. Meyer, Harvard University, Emeritus Kenneth A. Small, University of California, Irvine Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Debra Knopman, Progressive Policy Institute, appointed by Division on Earth and Life Studies and Sherwin Rosen, The University of Chicago, appointed by the NRC's Report Review Committee who were responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution.

OCR for page R1
INLAND NAVIGATION SYSTEM PLANNING: The Upper Mississippi River—Illinois Waterway This page in the original is blank.

OCR for page R1
INLAND NAVIGATION SYSTEM PLANNING: The Upper Mississippi River—Illinois Waterway Contents     EXECUTIVE SUMMARY   1  1   INTRODUCTION   8      Upper Mississippi River Navigation,   10      Navigation System Feasibility Study of the Waterway System,   11      Charge to the Committee,   13  2   The Public Interest in the Upper Mississippi River   15  3   U.S. Federal and Corps of Engineers Water Resources Planning Guidelines   19      Elements of the Principles and Guidelines,   19      Critique,   25  4   The Navigation Feasibility Study   29      Project Scoping, Alternatives, and Integration,   29      Economics,   32      Environment,   49      Engineering,   54  5   Improving Waterway System Planning   61      Contemporary Uncertainity Analysis: The State of the Art,   63      Short-term (Nonstructural) Measures,   66      Longer-Term Measures,   71      Environmental Analysis,   76  6   Summary and Recommendations   86     REFERENCES   88

OCR for page R1
INLAND NAVIGATION SYSTEM PLANNING: The Upper Mississippi River—Illinois Waterway     APPENDIXES    A   Participating Agencies in the Corps' 1991 Plan of Study   93  B   U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Executive Summary for the Corps of Engineers System Navigation Study   94  C   Tradable Lockage Permits   106  D   Biographical Sketches of Committee Members   113