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a more complete characterization of a problem. Coupled with Bayesian methods, decision analysis has the additional benefit of being able to assess the sensitivity of the decision rule to various inputs or assumptions that went into constructing the decision rule.

Finally, the committee has also presented risk-based allocation as a useful tool for research with small numbers of participants. This method is quite different from the others but can be useful for those cases in which it may be unethical to withhold treatment from a high-risk population by randomly assigning them to a control group.

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