Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.
Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.
OCR for page 186
Classifying Drinking Water Contaminants for Regulatory Consideration References Aach, J., W.Rindone, and G.M.Church. 2000. Systematic management and analysis of yeast gene expression data. Genome Research 10:431–445. Abbaszadegan, M., M.S.Huber, C.P.Gerba, and I.L.Pepper. 1993. Detection of enteroviruses in groundwater with the polymerase chain reaction. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 59:1318–1324. Abbaszadegan, M., P.Stewart, and M.LeChevallier. 1999. A strategy for detection of viruses in groundwater by PCR. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 65(2):444–449. Acheson, D.W. 1998. Nomenclature of enterotoxins [comment]. Lancet 351(9108):1003. Acheson, D.W.K, A.Donohue-Rolfe, and G.T.Keusch. 1991. The family of Shiga and Shiga-like toxins. Pp. 415–433 in Alouf, J.E, and J.H.Freer (eds.) Sourcebook of Bacterial Protein Toxins. London: Academic Press. Adam, R. 1991. The biology of Giardia spp. Microbiological Reviews 55(4):706–732. Adam, R.D. 2000. The Giardia lamblia genome. International Journal for Parasitology 30:475–484. Aggarwal, R., and K.Krawczynski. 2000. Hepatitis E: An overview and recent advances in clinical and laboratory research. Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology 15(1):9–20. Anderson, C.W. 1993. Recommending a scheme of reason: Political theory, policy science, and democracy. Policy Sciences 26:215–227. Anonymous. 1999. Outbreak of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Campylobacter among attendees of the Washington County Fair-New York, 1999. MMWR 48(36):803–805. Anthony, R.M., T.J.Brown, and G.L.French. 2000. Rapid diagnosis of bacteremia by universal amplification of 23 S ribosomal DNA followed by hybridization to an ologonucleotide array. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 39:781–788. Arana, I., A.Muela, J.Iriberri, L.Egea, and I.Barcina. 1992. Role of hydrogen peroxide in loss of culturability mediated by visible light in Escherichia coli
OCR for page 187
Classifying Drinking Water Contaminants for Regulatory Consideration in a freshwater ecosystem. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 58(12):3903–3907. Arneson, T., and E.Nord. 1999. The value of DALY life: Problems with ethics and validity of disability adjusted life years. British Medical Journal 319:1423–1425. ATSDR (Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry). 1997. Toxicological Profile for Tetrachloroethylene (Update). Atlanta, Ga.: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, U.S. Public Health Service. Auer, M.T., and S.L.Niehaus. 1993. Modeling fecal coliform bacteria—I. Field and laboratory determination of loss kinetics. Water Research 27(4): 693–701. Auer, M.T., S.T.Bagley, D.A.Stern, and M.J.Babiera. 1998. A framework for modeling the fate and transport of Giardia and Cryptosporidium in surface waters. Journal of Lake and Reservoir Management 14(2–3):393–400. AWWA (American Water Works Association). 1997. Workshop Report: Mission Definition for the National Contaminant Occurrence Database (NCOD). Preliminary Draft Report. Prepared by M.M.Frey, and J.S. Rosen. Denver, Colo.: AWWA. AWWARF (American Water Works Association Research Foundation). 2000. Chapter 1 and 5 In Research Needs Report: Report from Expert Workshop on Drinking Water Research. Denver, Colo.: AWWARF. Bailey, D., and D.Thompson. 1990. How to develop neural-network application. AI Expert 5(6):38–47. Balbus, J, R.Parkin, and M.Embrey. 2000. Susceptibility in microbial risk assessment: Definitions and research needs. Environmental Health Perspectives 108(9):901–905. Ballantine, L.G., and J.E.McFarland (eds.). 1998. Triazine Herbicides: Risk Assessment. Washington, D.C.: American Chemical Society. Barke, R.P., and H.C.Jenkins-Smith. 1993. Politics and scientific expertise: Scientists, risk perception, and nuclear waste policy. Risk Analysis 13:425–439. Barker, J., M.R.Brown, P.J.Collier, I.Farrell, and P.Gilbert. 1992. Relationship between Legionella pneumophila and Acanthamoeba polyphaga—Physiological status and susceptibility to chemical inactivation. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 58(8):2420–2425. Barnes, D.G., and M.Dourson. 1988. Reference dose (RfD): Description and use in health risk assessments. Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology 8:471–486. Baxt, W.G. 1995. Application of artificial neural networks to clinical medicine. Lancet 346:1135–1138. Beierle, T.C. 1998. Public participation in environmental decisions: An evaluation framework using social goals. Resources for the Future, November 1998, Discussion Paper 99–06. Available at http://www.rff.org (November 1998).
OCR for page 188
Classifying Drinking Water Contaminants for Regulatory Consideration Belosevic, M., R.A.Guy, R.Taghi-Kilani, N.F.Neumann, L.L.Gyurek, L.R. J.Liyanage, P.J.Millard, and G.R.Finch. 1997. Nucleic acid stains as indicators of Cryptosporidium parvum oocyst viability. International Journal for Parisitology 27(7):787–798. Bennett, D.H., T.E.McKone, and W.E.Kastenberg. 2000. Evaluating multimedia chemical persistence: Classification and regression tree analysis. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 19:810–819. Bennett, P. 1999. Understanding responses to risk: Some basic findings. Pp. 3–19 in Bennett, P., and S.K.Calman (eds.) Risk Communication and Public Health. New York, NY: Oxford University Press. Bergh, O., K.Y.Borsheim, G.Bratbak, and M.Heldal. 1989. High abundance of viruses found in aquatic environments. Nature 340:467–469. Bergstrom, K., and G.Langeland. 1981. Overleving av spolormegg, salmonel-labakterier og termostabile koliforme bakterier i jord og pa gronnsaker dyrket i infisert jord [Survival of ascaris eggs, salmonella and fecal coli in soil and on vegetables grown in infected soil]. Nordisk Veterinaermedicin 33:23–32. Blaser, M.J., H.L.Hardesty, B.Powers, and W.L.Wang. 1980. Survival of Campylobacter fetus subsp. jejuni in biological milieus. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 11(4):309–313. Bodian, D., I.M.Morgan, and H.A.Howe. 1949. Differentiation of three types of poliomyelitis viruses. III. The grouping of fourteen strains into three immunological types . American Journal of Hygeine 49:234. Bogosian, G., L.E.Sammons, P.J.Morris, J.P.O’Neil, M.A.Heitkamp, and D.B.Weber. 1996. Death of the Escherichia coli K-12 strain W3110 in soil and water. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 62(11):4114–4120. Bogosian, G., P.J.Morris, and J.P.O’Neil. 1998. A mixed culture recovery method indicates that enteric bacteria do not enter the viable but nonculturable state. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 64(5):1736–1742. Bohach, G.A., D.J.Fast, R.D.Nelson, and P.M.Schlievert. 1989. Staphylococcal and streptococcal pyrogenic toxins involved in toxic shock syndrome and related illnesses. Critical Reviews in Microbiology 17:251. Bolster, C.H., G.M.Hornberger, A.L.Mills, and J.L.Wilson. 1998. A method for calculating bacterial deposition coefficients using the fraction of bacteria recovered from laboratory columns. Environmental Science and Technology 32(10):1329–1332. Bowie, C., S.Beck, G.Bevan, J.Raftery, F.Silverton, and A.Stevens. 1997. Estimating the burden of disease in an English region. Journal of Public Health Medicine 19(1):87–92. Bowker, G.C., and S.L.Star. 1999. Sorting Things Out: Classification and Its Consequences. Cambridge, Mass.: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Press. Brayton, P.R., M.L.Tamplin, A.Huq, and R.R.Colwell. 1987. Enumeration of Vibrio cholerae O1 in Bangladesh waters by fluorescent-antibody direct viable count. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 53(12):2862–2865.
OCR for page 189
Classifying Drinking Water Contaminants for Regulatory Consideration Brezonik, P.L. 1990. Principles of linear free-energy and structure-activity relationships and their applications to the fate of chemicals in aquatic systems. Pp. 113–143 in Stumm, W. (ed.) Aquatic Chemical Kinetics: Reaction Rates of Processes in Natural Waters. New York: Wiley-Interscience. Brown, E.R., V.D.Ojeda, R.Wyn, and R.Levan. 2000. Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Access to Health Insurance and Health Care. Los Angeles, Calif.: UCLA Center for Health Policy Research and the Henry J.Kaiser Family Foundation. Brown, P. 1992. Popular epidemiology and toxic waste contamination: Lay and professional ways of knowing. Journal of Health and Social Behavior 33:267–281. Brown, P. 1997. Popular epidemiology revisited. Current Sociology 45:137–156. BRWG (Biotechnology Research Working Group). 2000. Interagency Report on the Federal Investment in Microbial Genomics. Washington, D.C.: National Science and Technology Council. Buchanan, K.L., and J.W.Murphy. 1998. What makes Cryptococcus neoformans a pathogen? (synopsis). Emerging Infectious Diseases 4:71–83. Bukhari, Z, M.M.Marshall, D.G.Korich, C.R.Fricker, H.V.Smith, J.Rosen, and J.L.Clancy. 2000. Comparison of Cryptosporidium parvum viability and infectivity assays following ozone treatment of oocysts. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 66:2972–2980. Bullard, R.D. 1994. Dumping in Dixie: Race, Class, and Environmental Quality. Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press. Burton, G.A., Jr., D.Gunnison, and G.R.Lanza. 1987. Survival of pathogenic bacteria in various freshwater sediments. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 53(4):633–638. Buswell, C.M., Y.M.Herlihy, L.M.Lawrence, J.T.McGuiggan, P.D.Marsh, C.W.Keevil, and S.A.Leach. 1998. Extended survival and persistence of Campylobacter spp. in water and aquatic biofilms and their detection by immunofluorescent antibody and -rRNA staining. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 64(2):733–741. Buts, F.I. 1969. O dlitel’nosti vyzhivaniia iaits ascaris lumbricoides v pochve trekh zon Adygeiskoi avtonomnoi Krasnodarskogo kraia [On the duration of survival of eggs of Ascaris lumbricoides in the soil of three zones of the Adygei Autonomous District of the Krasnodar Territory]. Meditsinskaia Parazitologiia i Parazitarnye Bolezni 38:241–242. Byrd, J.J., H.S.Xu, and R.R.Colwell. 1991. Viable but nonculturable bacteria in drinking water. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 57(3):875–878. Cabelli, V.J. 1977. Clostridium perfringens as a water quality indicator. In Hoadley, A., and B.Dutka (eds.) Bacterial Indicators/Health Hazards Associated with Water. Philadelphia, Pa.: American Society for Testing and Materials.
OCR for page 190
Classifying Drinking Water Contaminants for Regulatory Consideration Canale, R.P., M.T.Auer, E.M.Owens, T.M.Heidtke, and S.W.Effler. 1993. Modeling fecal coliform bacteria—II. Model development and application. Water Research 27(4):703–714. Caro, A.P.Got, J.Lesne, S.Binard, and B.Baleux. 1999. Viability and virulence of experimentally stressed nonculturable Salmonella typhimurium. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 65(7):3229–3232. Chakraborty, T., F.Ebel, E.Domann, K.Niebuhr, B.Gerstel, B.Gerstel, S. Pistor, C.J.Temm-Grove, B.M.Jockusch, M.Reinhard, U.Walter, and J. Wehland. 1995. A focal adhesion factor directly linking intracellularly motile Listeria monocytogenes and Listeria ivanovii to the actin-based cytoskeleton of mammalian cells. European Molecular Biology Organization Journal 14:1314–1321. Chamberlin, C., and R.Mitchell. 1978. A decay model for enteric bacteria in natural waters. Chapter 12 in Mitchell, R. (ed.) Water Pollution Microbiology. New York: Wiley-Interscience.. Champliaud, D., P.Gobet, M.Naciri, O.Vagner, J.Lopez, J.Christophe-Buison, I.Varga, G.Harly, R.Mancassola, and A.Bonnin. 1998. Failure to differentiate C. parvum from C. meleagridis based on PCR amplification of eight DNA sequences. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 64(4):1454–1458. Chang, S.L. 1943. Studies on Entamoeba histolytica, II. Observations concerning encystation, maturation and excystation of E. histolytica and on the longevity of culture induced cysts in various fluids and at different temperatures. Journal of Infectious Diseases 72:232–241. Chapron, C.D., N.A.Ballester, J.H.Fontaine, C.N.Frades, and A.B.Margolin. 2000. Detection of astroviruses, enteroviruses, and adenovirus types 40 and 41 in surface waters collected and evaluated by the information collection rule and an integrated cell culture-nested PCR procedure. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 66:2520–2525. Chess, C. 2000. Improving public participation in solving environmental health problems. Journal of Environmental Health 63:24–27. Chmielewski, R.A., and J.F.Frank. 1995. Formation of viable but nonculturable Salmonella during starvation in chemically defined solutions. Letters in Applied Microbiology 20(6):380–384. Colwell, R.R. 1996. Global climate and infectious disease: The cholera paradigm. Science 274(5295):2025–2031. Colwell, R.R., and A.Huq. 1994. Vibrios in the environment: Viable but nonculturable Vibrio cholerae. Pp. 117–133 in Wachsmuth, I.K., P.A.Blake, and O.Olsvik (eds.) Vibrio cholerae and Cholera: Molecular to Global Perspectives. Washington, D.C.: American Society for Microbiology. Conradi, H. 1903. Ueber lösliche durch aseptische Autolyse erhalten Giftstoffe von Ruhr und Typhusbazillen. Deutsch Med Wochenschr 29:26–28. Crump, K.S. 1995. Calculation of benchmark doses for continuous data. Risk Analysis 15(1):79–89.
OCR for page 191
Classifying Drinking Water Contaminants for Regulatory Consideration Dagan, R., and M.A.Menegus. 1986. A combination of four cell types for rapid detection of enteroviruses in clinical specimens. Journal of Medical Virology 19:219. Dahinden, U., C.Querol, J.Jager, and M.Nilsson. 1999. Using Computer Models in Participatory Integrated Assessment—Experiences Gathered in the ULYSSES Project and Recommendations for Futher Steps. ULYSSES WP-99–2. Available online at: http://zitl.zit.tu-darmstadt.de/ulysses/index.htm. Dalkey, N.C. 1969. Analyses from a group opinion study. Futures 1:541–551. Davies, C.M., J.A.Long, M.Donald, and N.J.Ashbolt. 1995. Survival of fecal microorganisms in marine and freshwater sediments. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 61(5):1888–1896. Davies-Colley, R.J., R.G.Bell, and A.M.Donnison. 1994. Sunlight inactivation of Enterococci and fecal coliforms in sewage effluent diluted in sea-water. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 60(6):2049–2058. Deere, D., J.Porter, R.W.Pickup, and C.Edwards. 1996. Survival of cells and DNA of Aeromonas salmonicida released into aquatic microcosms. Journal of Applied Bacteriology 81(3):309–318. DeRegnier, D.P., L.Cole, D.G.Schupp, and S.L.Erlandsen. 1989. Viability of Giardia cysts suspended in lake, river and tap water. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 55(5):1223–1229. DeRisi, J.L., and V.R.Iyer. 1999. Genomics and array technology. Current Opinion in Oncology 11:76–79. DiGiovanni, G.D., F.H.Hashemi, N.J.Shaw, F.A.Abrams, M.W. LeChevallier, and M.Abbaszadegan. 1999. Detection of infectious Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts in surface and filter backwash water samples by immunomagnetic separation and integrated cell culture PCR. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 65(8):3427–3432. DOE (U.S. Department of Energy). 2000. Microbial Genome Project. Available online at: http://www.sc.doe.gov/production/ober/microbial. Dowd, S., C.P.Gerba, F.Enriquez, and I.Pepper. 1998a. PCR amplification and species determination of microsporidia in formalin-fixed feces after immunomagnetic separation. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 64(1):333–336. Dowd, S., C.P.Gerba, and I.Pepper. 1998b. Confirmation of the human-pathogenic microsporidia Enterocytozoon bieneusi, Encephalitozoon intestinalis, and Vittaforma corneae in water. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 64(9):3332–3335. Dupray, E., M.P.Caprais, A.Derrien, and P.Fach. 1997. Salmonella DNA persistence in natural seawaters using PCR analysis. Journal of Applied Microbiology 82(4):507–510. EDSTAC (Endocrine Disruptor Screening and Testing Advisory Committee). 1999. Final Report: Volume I. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.
OCR for page 192
Classifying Drinking Water Contaminants for Regulatory Consideration Einsiedel, E.F., and D.L.Eastlick. 2000. Consensus conferences as deliberative democracy. Science Communication 21:323–343. Enriquez, C.E., et al. 1995. Survival of enteric adenoviruses 40 and 41 in tap, sea and waste water. Water Research 29(11):2548–2553. Enzinger, R.M., and R.C.Cooper. 1976. Role of bacteria and protozoa in the removal of Escherichia coli from estuarine waters. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 31(5):758–763. EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1995. Guidance for Risk Characterization. Washington, D.C.: Science Policy Council. EPA. 1996a. Safe Drinking Water Act Amendments of 1996: General Guide to Provisions. EPA/810/S/96/001 Washington, D.C.: Office of Water. EPA. 1996b. The Conceptual Approach for Contaminant Identification (working draft). EPA/812/D/96/001. Washington, D.C.: Office of Ground Water and Drinking Water. EPA. 1996c. The Model Plan for Public Participation. Developed by the Public Participation and Accountability Subcommittee of the National Environmental Justice Advisory Council, a Federal Advisory Committee to the US EPA. EPA 300-K-96–003. Washington, D.C.: Office of Environmental Justice. EPA. 1997a. Announcement of the Draft Drinking Water Contaminant Candidate List; Notice. Federal Register 62(193):52194–52219. EPA. 1997b. EPA Drinking Water Microbiology and Public Health Workshop. Washington, D.C.: Office of Ground Water and Drinking Water. EPA. 1997c. Meeting Summary: EPA National Drinking Water Contaminant Occurrence Data Base. Contract No. 68-W4–0001 prepared for Office of Ground Water and Drinking Water. Washington, D.C.: RESOLVE, Inc. EPA. 1997d. Options for Developing the Unregulated Contaminant Monitoring Regulation: Background Document (working draft). EPA/815/D/97/003. Washington, D.C.: Office of Ground Water and Drinking Water. EPA. 1998a. Announcement of the Drinking Water Contaminant Candidate List; Notice. Federal Register 63(40):10274–10287. EPA. 1998b. Definition of a Public Water System in SDWA Section 1401(4) as Amended by the 1996 SDWA Amendments. Federal Register 63(150):41939. EPA. 1998c. U.S. EPA Response to Comment Document: Draft Drinking Water Contaminant Candidate List. Washington, D.C.: Office of Ground Water and Drinking Water. EPA. 1999a. A Review of Contaminant Occurrence in Public Water Systems. Washington, D.C. EPA. 1999b. America’s Drinking Water in 1997. EPA 816-F-99–001. Washington, D.C.: Office of Water. EPA. 1999c. Final Revisions to the Unregulated Contaminant Monitoring Regulation; Fact Sheet. Washington, D.C.: EPA, Office of Ground Water and Drinking Water.
OCR for page 193
Classifying Drinking Water Contaminants for Regulatory Consideration EPA. 1999d. Issue Papers for Stakeholder Meeting of November 16, 1999. Washington, D.C.: Office of Ground Water and Drinking Water. EPA. 1999e. National Drinking Water Advisory Council Factsheet. EPA 816-F-99–009. Washington, D.C.: Office of Ground Water and Drinking Water. EPA. 1999f. Revisions to the Unregulated Contaminant Monitoring Regulation for Public Water Systems; Final Rule. Federal Register 64(180):50556–50620. EPA. 1999g. Revisions to the Unregulated Contaminant Monitoring Regulation for Public Water Systems: Proposed Rule. Federal Register 64(83):23397–23458. EPA. 1999h. Risk Assessment Guidance for Superfund: Volume 3 (Part A, Process for Conducting Probabilistic Risk Assessment). Draft Revision No. 5. Washington, D.C. EPA. 1999i. Risk-Based Concentration Table. Region III. Superfund Technical Support. EPA. 2000a. Current Drinking Water Standards. Available online at http://www.epa.gov/safewater/mcl.html. EPA. 2000b. Draft Research Plan for the Drinking Water Contaminant Candidate List. Washington, D.C.: EPA, Science Advisory Board Review Draft. EPA. 2000c. Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS); Arsenic, inorganic. Available online at http://www.epa.gov/iris/subst/0278.htm. EPA. 2000d. Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS); Nitrate. Available online at http://www.epa.gov/iris/subst/0076.htm. EPA. 2000e. Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS); Atrazine. Available online at http://www.epa.gov/iris/subst/0209.htm. EPA. 2000f. Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS). Available online at http://www.epa.gov/iris. EPA. 2000g. National Drinking Water Contaminant Occurrence Database: Introduction. Online. EPA. Available online at http://www.epa.gov/ncod. EPA. 2000h. National Drinking Water Contaminant User’s Guide Release Two. EPA. Available online at: http://www.epa.gov/ncod/html/ncod_userguide.html. EPA. 2000i. National Primary Drinking Water Regulations; Arsenic and Clarifications to Compliance and New Source Contaminants Monitoring; Proposed Rules. Federal Register 65(121):38887–38983. EPA. 2000j. Unregulated Contaminant Monitoring Regulation for Public Water Systems; Analytical Method for List 2 Contaminants and Clarification; Proposed Rule, Federal Register 65(178):55361–55398. EPA. 2000k. Unregulated Contaminant Monitoring for Public Water Systems: Analytical Methods for Perchlorate and Acetochlor; Announcement of Laboratory Approval and Performance Testing (PT) Program for the Analysis of Perchlorate; Final Rule and Proposed Rule. Federal Register 65(42):11372–11385. ERG (Eastern Research Group, Inc.)-EPA. 2000. Endocrine Disruptor Priority-Setting Database. Version 2 Beta. Available online at http://www.ergweb.com/endocrine/.
OCR for page 194
Classifying Drinking Water Contaminants for Regulatory Consideration Favorov, M.O., M.Y.Kosoy, S.A.Tsarev, J.E.Childs, and H.S.Margolis. 2000. Prevalence of antibody to hepatitis E among rodents in the United States. Journal of Infectious Diseases 181:449–455. Fields, B.S., E.B.Shotts, J.C.Feeley, G.W.Gorman, and W.T.Martin. 1984. Proliferation of Legionella pneumophila as an intracellular parasite of the ciliated protozoan Tetrahymena pyriformis. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 47:467–471. FIFARS (Federal Interagency Forum on Aging-Related Statistics). 2000. Older Americans 2000. Hyattsville, Md. Finkelstein, N.D. 2000. Introduction: Transparency in public policy. Pp. 1–9 in Finkelstein, N.D. (ed.) Transparency in Public Policy. New York: St Martin’s Press. Fiorino, D.J. 1990. Citizen participation and environmental risk: A survey of institutional mechanisms. Science, Technology, and Human Values 15:226–243. Franz, C.R., and K.G.Jin. 1995. The structure of group conflict in a collaborative work group during information systems development. Journal of Applied Communication Research 23:108–127. Fry, J.C., and D.G.Staples. 1974. The occurrence and role of Bdellovibrio bacteriovirus in a polluted river. Water Research 8:1029–1035. Fujioka, R.S., and L.K.Shizumura. 1985. Clostridium perfringens, a reliable indicator of stream water quality. Journal of the Water Pollution Control Federation 57(10):986–992. Garson, G.D. 1998. Neural Networks: An Introductory Guide for Social Scientists. Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Sage Publications. Gaylor, D., L., Ryan, D.Krewski, and Y.Zhu. 1998. Procedures for calculating benchmark doses for health risk assessment. Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology 28(2):150–164. Gerba, C.P., et al. 1978. Characterization of sewage solid-associated viruses and behavior in natural waters. Water Research 12:805–812. Gibbons, C.L., B.G.Gazzard, M.Ibrahim, Morris-Jones, C.S.L.Ong, and F. M.Awad-El—Kariem. 1998. Correlation between markers of strain variation in Cryptosporidium parvum: Evidence of clonality. Parasitology Int 47:139–147. Gibbs, L.M., and CCHW (Citizens Clearinghouse for Hazardous Waste). 1995. Dying from Dioxin. Boston, Mass.: South End Press. Gibson, M.C., S.M.deMonsabert, and J.Orme-Zavaleta. 1997. Comparison of noncancer risk assessment approaches for use in deriving drinking water criteria. Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology 26:243–256. Gilliom, R.J., and D.R.Helsel. 1986. Estimation of distributional parameters for censored trace level water quality data. 1. Estimation techniques. Water Resources Research 22(2):135–146. Golub, M.S. 2000. Adolescent health and the environment. Environmental Health Perspectives 108:355–362.
OCR for page 195
Classifying Drinking Water Contaminants for Regulatory Consideration Goosney, D.L., D.G.Knoechel, and B.B.Finlay. 1998. Enteropathogenic E. coli, Salmonella and Shigella: Masters of host cell cytoskeletal exploitation. Emerging Infectious Diseases 5:216–223. Gouin, T., D.Mackay, and F.Wania. 2000. Screening chemicals for persistence in the environment. Environmental Science and Technology 34:881. Haas, C.N., and P.A.Scheff. 1990. Estimation of averages in truncated samples. Environmental Science and Technology 24:912–919. Haas, C.N., C.Crockett, J.B.Rose, C.Gerba, and A.Fazil. 1996. Infectivity of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts. Journal of the American Water Works Association 88(9):131–136. Haas, C.N., J.B.Rose, and C.P.Gerba. 1999. Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment. New York: John Wiley. Haas, C.N., A.Thayyar-Madabusi, J.B.Rose, and C.P.Gerba. 2000. Development of a dose-response relationship for Escherichia coli O157:H7. International Journal of Food Microbiology 56(2–3):153–159. Hampton, G. 1999. Environmental equity and public participation. Policy Sciences 32:163–174. Hattis, D., and E.L.Anderson. 1999. What should be the implications of uncertainty, variability, and inherent “biases”/“conservatism” for risk management decision-making? Risk Analysis 19:95–107. Havelaar, A.H., M.During, and J.F.Versteegh. 1987. Ampicillin-dextrin agar medium for the enumeration of Aeromonas species in water by membrane filtration. Journal of Applied Bacteriology 62(3):279–287. Havelaar, A.H., A.E.De Hollander, P.F.Teunis, E.G.Evers, H.J.Van Kranen, J.F.Versteegh, J.E.Van Koten, and W.Slob. 2000. Balancing the risks and benefits of drinking water disinfection: Disability adjusted life-years on the scale. Environmental Health Perspectives 108(4):315–321. Heidelberg, J.F, J.A.Elsen, W.C.Nelson, R.A.Clayton, M.L.Gwinn, R.J. Dodson, H.H.Haft, E.K.Hickey, J.D.Peterson, L.Umayam, S.R.Gill, K.E.Nelson, T.D.Read, H.Tettelin, D.Richardson, M.D.Ermolaeva, J. Vamathevan, S.Bass, H.Qin, I.Dragoi, P.Sellers, L.McDonald, T.Utterback, R.D.Fleishmann, W.C.Nierman, O.White, S.L.Salzberg, H.O.Smith, R.R.Colwell, J.J.Mekalanos, J.C.Venter, and C.M.Fraser. 2000. DNA sequence of both chromosomes of the cholera pathogen Vibrio cholerae. Nature 406:477–484. Helsel, D.R., and T.A.Cohn. 1988. Estimation of descriptive statistics for multiply censored water quality data. Water Resources Research 24(12):1997–2004. Herrmann, J.E., K.D.Kostenbader, and D.O.Cliver. 1974. Persistence of enteroviruses in water. Applied Microbiology 28:895–896. Hinton, G.E. 1992. How neural networks learn from experience. Scientific American 267:144–151. Hornik, K., M.Stinchombe, and H.White. 1989. Multilayer feedforward networks are universal approximators. Neural Networks 2:359–366.
OCR for page 196
Classifying Drinking Water Contaminants for Regulatory Consideration Hurst, C.J., and C.P.Gerba. 1980. Stability of simian rotavirus in fresh and estuarine water. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 39(1):1–5. Hyder, A.A., G.Rotllant, and R.H.Morrow. 1998. Measuring the burden of disease: Healthy life-years. American Journal of Public Health 88(2):196–202. IOM (Institute of Medicine). 1988. Medical Technology Assessment Directory. A Pilot Reference to Organizations, Assessments, and Information Resources. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. IOM. 1992. Setting Priorities for Health Technologies Assessment: A Model Process. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. IOM. 1995. Setting Priorities for Clinical Practice Guidelines. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. IOM. 1999. Toward Environmental Justice: Research, Education, and Health Policy Needs. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. Islam, M.S., M.K.Hasan, M.A.Miah, G.C.Sur, A.Felsenstein, M. Venkatesan, R.B.Sack, and M.J.Albert. 1993. Use of the polymerase chain reaction and fluorescent-antibody methods for detecting viable but nonculturable Shigella dysenteriae type 1 in laboratory microcosms. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 59(2):536–540. Jaykus, L.-A. 1997. Epidemiology and detection as options for control of viral and parasitic foodborne disease. Emerging Infectious Diseases 3:529–539. Jenkins, M.B., L.J.Anguish, D.D.Bowman, M.J.Walker, and W.C.Ghiorse. 1997. Assessment of a dye permeability assay for determination of inactivation rates of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 63(10):3844–3850. Jinneman, K.C., J.H.Wetherington, A.M.Adams, J.M.Johnson, B.J.Tenge, N.L.Dang, and W.E.Hill. 1996. Differentiation of Cyclospora sp. and Eimeria spp. by using the polymerase chain reaction products and restriction fragment length polymorphisms. FDA Lab Information Bulletin 4044:4. Johnson, D.W., N.J.Pieniazek, D.W.Griffin, L.Misener, and J.B.Rose. 1995. Development of a PCR protocol for sensitive detection of Cryptosporidium oocysts in water samples. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 61(11):3849–3855. Jothikumar, N., K.Aparna, S.Kamatcdhiammal, R.Paulmurugan, S.Saravandadevi, and P.Khanna. 1993 Detection of hepatitis E virus in raw and treated wastewater with the polymerase chain reaction. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 59:2558–2562. Kaplan, J.E., R.A.Goodman, L.B.Schonberger, E.C.Lippy, and G.W.Gary. 1982. Gastroenteritis due to Norwalk virus: An outbreak associated with a municipal water system. Journal of Infectious Diseases 146(2):190–197. Karetnyi, Y.V., M.J.Gilchrist, and S.J.Naides. 1999. Hepatitis E virus infection prevalence among selected populations in Iowa. Journal of Clinical Virology 14:51–55.
OCR for page 197
Classifying Drinking Water Contaminants for Regulatory Consideration Kell, D.B., A.S.Kaprelyants, D.H.Weichart, C.R.Harwood, and M.R.Barer. 1998. Viability and activity in readily culturable bacteria: A review and discussion of the practical issues. Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek 73(2): 169–187. Keller, P.E., S.Hashem, L.J.Kangas, and R.T.Kouzes. 1995. Applications of Neural Networks in Environment, Energy, and Health. Proceedings of the 1995 Workshop on Environmental and Energy Applications of Neural Networks. River Edge, N.J.: World Scientific Publishing. Keusch, G.T. 1998. Shigella. Pp. 1804–1810 In Gorbach, S.L., J.G.Bartlett, and N.R.Blacklow (eds.) Infectious Diseases. Philadelphia, Pa.: W.B. Saunders. Keusch, G.T., G.F.Grady, L.J.Mata, and J.M.McIver. 1972. The pathogenesis of Shigella diarrhea. 1. Enterotoxin production by Shigella dysenteriae 1. Journal of Clinical Investigation 51:1212–1218. Khramtsov, N.V., P.A.Chung, C.C.Dykstra, J.K.Griffiths, U.M.Morgan, M.J.Arrowood, and S.J.Upton. 2000. Presence of double-stranded RNAs in human and calf isolates of Cryptosporidium parvum. Journal of Parasitology 86(2):275–282. Kimbell, L.M., D.L.Miller, W.Chavez, and N.Altman. 1999. Molecular analysis of the 18S rRNA gene of C. serpentis in a wild-caught corn snake (Elaphe guttata guttata) and a five-species restriction fragment length polymorphism-based assay that can additionally discern C. parvum from C. wrairi. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 65(12):5345–5349. King, C.H., E.B.Shotts, R.E.Wooley, and K.G.Porter. 1988. Survival of coliforms and bacterial pathogens within protozoa during chlorination. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 53(12):3023–3033. Kingombe, C.I., G.Huys, M.Tonolla, M.J.Albert, J.Swings, R.Peduzzi, and T.Jemmi. 1999. PCR detection, characterization, and distribution of virulence genes in Aeromonas spp. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 65(12):5293–5302. Kizeval’ter, I.S., and V.V.Derevitskaia. 1968. Vyzhivaemost’ iaits askarid v pochve v usloviiakh Moskovskoi oblasti [Survival of ascarid eggs in soil under conditions of the Moscow region]. Meditsinskaia Parazitologiia i Parazitarnye Bolezni 37:527–529. Kostrzynska, M., M.Sankey, E.Haack, C.Power, J.E.Aldom, A.H.Chagla, S. Unger, G.Palmateer, H.Lee, J.T.Trevors, and S.A.De Grandis. 1999. Three sample preparation protocols for polymerase chain reaction based detection of Cryptosporidium parvum in environmental samples. Journal of Microbiological Methods 35:65–71. Kozwich, D., K.A.Johansen, K.Landau, C.A.Roehl, S, Woronoff, and P.A. Roehl . 2000. Development of a novel, rapid integrated Cryptosporidium parvum detection kit. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 66(7):2711–2717. Kransnonos, L.N. 1978. Mnogoletniaia vyzhivaemost’ iaits askarid (Ascaris lumbricoides L., 1758) V pochve Samarkanda [Long-term survival of asca-
OCR for page 198
Classifying Drinking Water Contaminants for Regulatory Consideration rid eggs (Ascaris lumbricoides L., 1758) in the soil of Samarkand]. Meditsinskaia Parazitologiia i Parazitarnye Bolezni 47:103–105. Kraus, N, T.Malmfors, and P.Slovic. 1992. Intuitive toxicology: Expert and lay judgments of chemical risks. Risk Analysis 12:215–232. Kubli, D., R.Steffen, and M.Schär. 1987. Importation of poliomyelitis to industrialized nations between 1975 and 1984: Evaluation and conclusions for vaccination recommendations. British Medical Journal 295:169. Kwo, P.Y., G.G.Schlauder, H.A.Carpenter, P.J.Murphy, J.E.Rosenblatt, G.J.Dawson, E.E.Mast, K.Krawczynski, and V.Balan. Acute hepatitis E by a new isolate acquired in the United States. Mayo Clinic Proceedings 72:1133–1136. Labrique, A.B., D.L.Thomas, S.K.Stoszek, and K.E.Nelson. 1999. Hepatitis E: An emerging infectious disease. Epidemiologic Reviews 21:162–179. Laird, F.N. 1993. Participatory analysis, democracy, and technological decision making. Science, Technology, and Human Values 18:341–361. Laliberte, P., and D.J.Grimes. 1982. Survival of Escherichia coli in lake bottom sediment. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 43(3):623–628. Lancefield, R.C. 1928. The antigenic complex of Streptococcus haemolyticus. I. Demonstration of a type-specific substance in extracts of Streptococcus haemolyticus. Journal of Experimental Medicine 47:91–103. Lander, E.S. 1999. Array of hope. Nature Genetics 21 (Suppl. 1):3–4. Law, D. 2000. Virulence factors of Escherichia coli O157 and other Shiga toxin-producing E. coli. Journal of Applied Microbiology 88:729–745. Laxer, M.A., B.K.Timblin, and R.J.Patel. 1991. DNA sequences for the specific detection of C. parvum in raw milk by PCR and oligonucleotide probe hybridization. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 62:3259–3264. LeChevallier, M.W., W.D.Norton, and R.G.Lee. 1991. Occurrence of Giardia and Cryptosporidium spp. in surface water supplies. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 57(9):2610–2616. LeChevallier, M.W., W.Norton, M.Abbaszadegan, T.Atherholt, and J.Rosen. 1997. Variations in Giardia and Cryptosporidium in Source Water: Statistical Approaches to Analyzing ICR Data. Denver, Colo.: American Water Works Association. Lenaghan, J., B.New, and E.Mitchell. 1996. Setting priorities: Is there a role for citizens’ juries? British Medical Journal 312:1591–1593. Leng, X., D.A.Mosier, and R.D.Oberst. 1996. Differentiation of C. parvum, C. muris and C. baileyi by PCR-RFLP analysis of the 18S rRNA gene. Veterinary Parasitology 62:1–7. Linstone, H., and M.Turoff (eds.). 1975. The Delphi Method: Techniques and Applications. Reading, Mass.: Addison-Wesley. Little, R.J.A., and D.B.Rubin. 1987. Statistical Analysis with Missing Data. New York: John Wiley & Sons. Lleo, Md., M.C.Tafi, and P.Canepari. 1998. Nonculturable Enterococcus faecalis cells are metabolically active and capable of resuming active growth. Systematic and Applied Microbiology 21(3):333–339.
OCR for page 199
Classifying Drinking Water Contaminants for Regulatory Consideration Lodder, W.J., J.Vinje, R.van de Heide, A.M.de Roda Husman, E.J.T.M. Leenen, and M.P.G.Koopmans. 1999. Molecular detection of Norwalklike caliciviruses in sewage. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 65:5624–5627. Lopez, C.J., and G.M.Gonzalez. 1996. Lay knowledge and public participation in technological and environmental policy. Philosophy and Technology 2:53–72. Mahbubani, M., A.K.Bej, M.H.Perlin, F.W.Schaeffer, W.Jakubowski, and R.M.Atlas. 1992. Differentiation of G. duodenalis from other Giardia spp. by using polymerase chain reaction and gene probes. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 30:74–78. Malone, M.J. 1994. Small disagreements: Character contests and working consensus in informal talk. Symbolic Interaction 17(2):107–127. Mancini, J.L. 1978. Numerical estimates of coliform mortality under various conditions. Journal of the Water Pollution Control Federation 50:2477–2484. Marshall, A., and J.Hodgson. 1998. DNA chips: An array of possibilities. Nature Biotechnology 16:27–31. Matson, E.A., S.G.Horner, and J.D.Buck. 1978. Pollution indicators and other microorganisms in river sediment. Journal of the Water Pollution Control Federation (1):13–19. Mauskopf, J.A., and M.T.French. 1991. Estimating the value of avoiding morbidity and mortality from foodborne illnesses. Risk Analysis 11(4):619–631. McCrudden, R., S.O’Connell, T.Farrant, S.Beaton, J.P.Iredale, and D.Fine. 2000. Sporadic acute hepatitis E in the United Kingdom: An underdiagnosed phenomenon? Gut 46:732–733. McFeters, G.A., G.K.Bissonnette, J.J.Jezeski, C.A.Thomson, and D.G. Stuart. 1974. Comparative survival of indicator bacteria and enteric pathogens in well water. Applied Microbiology 27:823–829. McFeters, G.A., J.S.Kippin, and M.W.LeChevallier. 1986. Injured coliforms in drinking water. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 51(1):1–5. Medema, G.J., F.M.Schets, P.F.Teunis, and A.H.Havelaar. 1998. Sedimentation of free and attached Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts in water. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 64(11):4460–4666. Melnick, J.L. 1955. Antigenic crossings within poliovirus types. Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine 89:131–133. Melnick, J.L. 1996. Enteroviruses: Polioviruses, coxsackieviruses, echoviruses, and newer enteroviruses. Chapter 22 in Fields, B.N., D.M.Knipe, and P.M.Howley (eds.) Fields Virology. Third Edition. Philadelphia, Pa.: Lippincott-Raven. Melnick, J.L., and C.P.Gerba. 1980. The ecology of enteroviruses in natural waters. CRC Critical Review in Environmental Control 10:65–93.
OCR for page 200
Classifying Drinking Water Contaminants for Regulatory Consideration Meng, J., P.Dubreuh, and J.Pillot. 1997. A new PCR based seroneutralization assay in cell culture for diagnosis of hepatitis E. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 35:1373–1377. Meng, X-J., P.G.Halbur, M.S.Shapiro, S.Govindarajan, J.D.Bruna, I.K. Mushahwar, R.M.Purcell, and S.U.Emerson. 1998. Genetic and experimental evidence for cross-species infection by swine hepatitis E virus. Journal of Virology 72:9714–9721. Mento, S.J., C.Weeks-Levy, J.M.Tatem, E.J.Gorgacz, and W.F.Waterfield. 1993. Significance of a newly identified attenuating mutation in Sabin 3 oral poliovirus vaccine. Developments in Biological Standardization 78:93. Mohadjer, S., and S.Mehrabian. 1975. Studies on the survival of Shigella flexneri in river and tap water. Archives Roumaines de Pathologic Experimentales et de Microbiologie 34:307–12. Morgan, U.M., and R.C.Thompson. 1998. Molecular detection of parasitic protozoa. Parasitology 117(Suppl.):S73–85. Morgan, U.M., P.T.Monis, R.Fayer, and P.Deplazes. 1999a. Phylogenetic relationships among isolates of Cryptosporidium: Evidence for several new species. Journal of Parasitology 85(6):1126–1133. Morgan, U., L.Xiao, I.Sulaiman, R.Weber, A.A.Lal, R.C.Thompson, and P. Deplazes. 1999b. Which genotypes/species of Cryptosporidium are human susceptible to? Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology 46(5):42S–43S. Morgan, U., R.Weber, L.Xiao, I.Sulaiman, R.C.Thompson, W.Ndiritu, A.A.Lal, A.Moore, and P.Deplazes. 2000. Molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium isolates obtained from human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals living in Switzerland, Kenya, and the United States. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 38(3):1180–1183. Morrow, R.H., and J.H.Bryant. 1995. Health policy approaches to measuring and valuing human life: Conceptual and ethical issues. American Journal of Public Health 85:1356–1360. Muela, A., J.M.Garcia-Bringas, I.Arana, and I.Barcina. 2000. The effect of simulated solar radiation on Escherichia coli: The relative roles of UV-B, UV-A, and photosynthetically active radiation. Microbial Ecology 39(1):65–71. Nataro, J.P., and J.B.Kaper. 1998. Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli. Clinical Microbiology Reviews 11(1):142–201 Neal, R.A. 1985. Chemicals and safe drinking water: National and international perspective. Pp. 1–8 (Ch.1) in Rice, R.G. (ed.) Safe Drinking Water: The Impact of Chemicals on a Limited Resource. Chelsea, Mich.: Lewis Publishers. Neumann, N.F., L.L.Gyürek, L.Gammie, G.R.Finch, and M.Belosevic. 2000. Comparison of animal infectivity and nucleic acid staining for assessment of Cryptosporidium parvum viability in water. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 66(1):406–412.
OCR for page 201
Classifying Drinking Water Contaminants for Regulatory Consideration Nigrovic, L.E., and V.W.Chiang. 2000. Cost analysis of enteroviral polymerase chain reaction in infants with fever and cerebrospinal fluid pleocytosis. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine 154:761–768. NLM (National Library of Medicine). 2000. TOXNET (Toxicology Data Network). Available online at http://toxnet.nlm.nih.gov/. NRC (National Research Council). 1988. Enhancing Human Performance: Issues, Theories, and Techniques. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. NRC. 1992. In the Mind’s Eye: Enhancing Human Performance. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. NRC. 1996. Understanding Risk: Informing Decisions in a Democratic Society. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. NRC. 1997. Safe Water from Every Tap: Improving Water Service to Small Communities. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. NRC. 1999a. Setting Priorities for Drinking Water Contaminants. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. NRC. 1999b. Identifying Future Drinking Water Contaminants. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. NRC. 1999c. Tooele Chemical Agent Disposal Facility: Update on National Research Council Recommendations. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. Nriagu, J.O. (ed.). 1994. Arsenic in the environment. Part I: Cycling and characterization. Advances in Environmental Science and Technology Series 26. O’Brien, R.T., and J.S.Newman. 1977. Inactivation of polioviruses and coxsackieviruses in surface water. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 33:334–340. O’Donoghue, P.J. 1995. Cryptosporidium and cryptosporidiosis in man and animals. International Journal for Parasitology 25(2):139–195. Okhuysen, P.C., C.L.Chappell, J.H.Crabb, C.R.Sterling, and H.L.DuPont HL. 1999. Virulence of three distinct Cryptosporidium parvum isolates for healthy adults. Journal of Infectious Diseases 180(4):1275–1281. Okun, D.A. Historical overview of drinking water contaminants and public water utilities. Pp. 22–32 in Identifying Drinking Water Contaminants. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. Oreskes, N. 1998. Evaluation (not validation) of quantitative models. Environmental Health Perspectives 106(Suppl. 6):1453–1460. Orlandi, P.A., and K.A.Lampel. 2000. Extraction-free, filter-based template preparation for rapid and sensitive PCR detection of pathogenic parasitic protozoa. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 38:2271–2277. Pallansch, M.A., and L.J.Anderson. 1998. Coxsackievirus, echovirus, and other enteroviruses. Chapter 258 in Gorbach, S.L, J.G.Bartlett, and N.R. Blacklow (eds.) Infectious Diseases. Philadelphia, Pa.: W.B.Saunders. Palmer, M. 1988. Bacterial loadings from resuspended sediments in recreational beaches. Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering 15:450–455.
OCR for page 202
Classifying Drinking Water Contaminants for Regulatory Consideration Pankow, J.F., and J.A.Cherry. 1996. Dense Chlorinated Solvents and Other DNAPLs in Groundwater: History, Behavior, and Remediation. Portland, Oreg.: Waterloo Press. Parkin, R.T., and J.M.Balbus. 2000. Variations in concepts of susceptibility in risk assessment. Risk Analysis 20(5)603–611. Parkin, R.T., J.O.Davies-Cole, and J.M.Balbus. 2000. Chronic sequelae associated with waterborne pathogens: A definition and review of human evidence. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Public Health Association, Boston, November. Washington, D.C.: American Public Health Association. Perhac, R.M. 1998. Comparative risk assessment: Where does the public fit in? Science, Technology, and Human Values 23:221–241. Peters, E., and P.Slovic. 1996. The role of affect and worldviews as orienting dispositions in the perception and acceptance of nuclear power. Journal of Applied Social Psychology 26:1427–1453. Pina, S., J.Jofre, S.U.Emerson, R.HPurcll, and R.Girones. 1998. Characterization of a strain of infectious hepatitis E virus isolated from sewage in an area where hepatitis E is not endemic. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 64:4485–4488. Pontius, F.W. and S.W.Clark. 1999. Drinking water quality standards, regulations and goals. Chapter 1 in Water Quality and Treatment: A Handbook of Community Water Supplies, Fifth Edition. New York: McGraw-Hill. Quinn, T.C., and R.E.Chaisson. 1998. International epidemiology of the human immunodeficiency virus. Pp. 1063–1081 in Gorbach, S.L., J.G. Bartlett, and N.R.Blacklow (eds.) Infectious Diseases. Philadelphia, Pa.: W.B.Saunders Co. Ravel, J., I.T.Knight, C.E.Monahan, R.T.Hill, and R.R.Colwell. 1995. Temperature-induced recovery of Vibrio cholerae from the viable but nonculturable state: Growth or resuscitation? Microbiology 141(Pt. 2):377–383. Ravetz, J. 1999. Models as metaphors. ULYSSES WP-99–3. Germany: Darmstadt University of Technology, Center for Interdisciplinary Studies in Technology. Rayner, S., and R.Cantor. 1987. How fair is safe enough? The cultural approach to societal technology choice. Risk Analysis 7:3–13. Redlinger, T., K.O’Rourke, L.Nickey, and G.Martinez. 1998. Elevated hepatitis A and E seroprevalence rates in a Texas/Mexico border community. Texas Medicine 94:68–71. Regli, S., J.B.Rose, C.N.Haas, and C.P.Gerba. 1991. Modeling risk for pathogens in drinking water. Journal of the American Water Works Association 83(11):76–84. Ren, R.B., E.G.Moss, and V.R.Racaniello. 1991. Identification of two determinants that attenuate vaccine-related type 2 poliovirus. Journal of Virology 65:1377–1382.
OCR for page 203
Classifying Drinking Water Contaminants for Regulatory Consideration Renn, O., T.Webler, H.Rakel, P.Dienel, and B.Johnson. 1993. Public participation in decision making: A three-step procedure. Policy Sciences 26:189–214. Rigsbee, W., et al. 1997. Detection of the viable but nonculturable state in Escherichia coli O157:H7. Journal of Food Safety 16:255–262. Robertson, L.J., A.T.Campbell, and H.V.Smith. 1992. Survival of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts under various environmental pressures. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 58:3494–3500. Rochelle, P.A., D.M.Ferguson, T.J.Handojo, R.De Leon, M.H.Stewart, and R.L.Wolfe. 1997a. An assay combining cell culture with reverse transcriptase PCR to detect and determine the infectivity of waterborne Cryptosporidium parvum. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 63(5):2029–2037. Rochelle, P.A., R.De Leon, M.H.Stewart, and R.Wolfe. 1997b. Comparison of primers and optimization of PCR conditions for detection of C. parvum and G. lamblia in water. Applied Environmental Microbiology 63(1):106–114. Roivainen, M., M.Knip, H.Hyoty, P.Kulmala, M.Hiltunen, P.Vahasalo, T. Hovi, and H.K.Akerblom. 1998. Several different enterovirus serotypes can be associated with prediabetic autoimmune episodes and onset of overt IDDM. Childhood Diabetes in Finalnd (DiMe) Study Group. Journal of Medical Virology 56:74–78. Rollins, D.M., and R.R.Colwell. 1986. Viable but nonculturable stage of Campylobacter jejuni and its role in survival in the natural aquatic environment. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 52(5):531–538. Rose, J.B., C.N.Haas, and S.Regli. 1991a. Risk assessment and the control of waterborne giardiasis. American Journal of Public Health 81:709–713. Rose, J.B., C.P.Gerba, and W.Jakubowski. 1991b. Survey of potable water supplies for Cryptosporidium and Giardia. Environmental Science and Technology 25:1393–1400. Roszak, D.B., and R.R.Colwell. 1987. Survival strategies of bacteria in the natural environment. Microbiological Reviews 51(3):365–379. Rowe, G., and L.J.Frewer. 2000. Public participation methods: A framework for evaluation. Science, Technology, and Human Values 25:3–29. Sabin, A.B. 1985. Oral poliovirus vaccine: History of its development and use, and current challenge to eliminate poliomyelitis from the world. Journal of Infectious Diseases 151:420. Sanchez, J.L., and D.N.Taylor. 1997. Cholera. Lancet 349:1825–1830. Sawyer, M.H. 1999. Enterovirus infections: Diagnosis and treatment. Pediatric Infectious Diseases Journal 18:1033–1040. Schaub, S.A., and R.K.Oshiro. 2000. Public health concerns about caliciviruses as waterborne contaminants. Journal of Infectious Diseases 181(Suppl. 2):S374–380.
OCR for page 204
Classifying Drinking Water Contaminants for Regulatory Consideration Selevan, S.G., C.A.Kimmel, and P.Mendoza. 2000. Identifying critical windows of exposure for children’s health. Environmental Health Perspectives 108(Suppl. 3):451–455. Shieh, Y.S., R.S.Baric, and M.D.Sobsey. 1997. Detection of low levels of enteric viruses in metropolitan and airplane sewage. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 63(11):4401–4407. Shorter, J. 1973. Correlation Analysis in Organic Chemistry: An Introduction to Linear Free-Energy Relationships. Oxford: Clarendon Press. Sibille, I., T.Sime-Ngando, L.Mathieu, and J.C.Block. 1998. Protozoan bacterivory and Escherichia coli survival in drinking water distribution systems. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 64(1):197–202. Slovic, P., T.Malmfors, D.Krewski, C.K.Mertz, N.Neil, and S.Bartlett. 1995. Intuitive toxicology. II. Expert and lay judgments of chemical risks in Canada. Risk Analysis 15:661–675. Smith, E.M., C.P.Gerba, and J.L.Melnick. 1978. Role of sediment in the persistence of enteroviruses in the estuarine environment. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 35(4):685–688. Smith, J.L. 2001. A reviwe of Hepatitis E virus. Journal of Food Protection 64(4):572–586. Snacken, R., A.P.Kendal, L.R.Haaheim, and J.M.Woods. 1999. The next influenza pandemic: Lessons from Hong Kong, 1997. Emerging Infectious Diseases 5:195–203. Sobsey, M., and B.Olson. 1983. Microbial agents of waterborne disease. In Berger, P.S., and Y.Argaman (eds.) Assessment of Microbiology and Turbidity Standards for Drinking Water. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Sowby, F.D. 1965. Radiation and other risks. Health Physics 11:879–887. Starr, C. 1969. Social benefit versus technological risk. Science 1965:1232–1238. Steiner, T.S., N.M.Thielman, and R.L.Guerrant. 1997. Protozoal agents: What are the dangers for the public water supply? Annual Review of Medicine 48:329–340. Steinert, M., L.Emody, R.Amann, and J.Hacker. 1997. Resuscitation of viable but nonculturable Legionella pneumophila Philadelphia JR32 by Acanthamoeba castellanii. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 63 (5):2047–2053. Stollerman, G.H. 1998. Streptococcus pyogenes (Group A streptococci). Pp. 1703–1719 in Gorbach, S.L., J.G.Bartlett, and N.R.Blacklow (eds.) Infectious Diseases. Philadelphia, Pa.: W.B.Saunders. Strebel, P.M., R.W.Sutter, S.L.Cochi, R.J.Bielik, E.W.Brink, O.M.Kew, M.A.Pallansch, W.A.Orenstein, and A.R.Hinman. 1992. Epidemiology of poliomyelitis in the United States one decade after the last reported case of indigenous wild virus-associated disease. Clinical Infectious Diseaes 14:568–579.
OCR for page 205
Classifying Drinking Water Contaminants for Regulatory Consideration Sturbaum, G.D., Y.R.Ortega, R.H.Gilman, C.R.Sterling, L.Cabrera, and D.A.Klein. 1998. Detection of Cyclospora cayetanemsis in wastewater. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 64(6):2284–2286. Sulaiman, I.M., L.Xiao, and A.Lal. 1999. Evaluation of C. parvum genotyping techniques. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 65(10): 4431–4432. Sulaiman, I. M., U.M.Morgan, R.C.A.Thompson, A.A.Lal, and L.Xiao. 2000. Phylogenetic relationships of Cryptosporidium parasites based on the 70-kilodalton heat shock protein (HSP70) gene. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 66:2385–2391. Swanson, M.B., and A.C.Socha (eds.). 1997. Chemical Ranking and Scoring: Guidelines for Relative Assessments of Chemicals. Proceedings of the Pellston Workshop on Chemical Ranking and Scoring. Pensacola, Fla.: Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry Press. Swerdlow, D.L., B.A.Woodruff, R.C.Brady, P.M.Griffin, S.Tippen, H.D. Donnell, Jr., E.Geldreich, B.J.Payne, A.Meyer, Jr., J.G.Wells, et al. 1992. A waterborne outbreak in Missouri of Escherichia coli O157:H7 associated with bloody diarrhea and death. Annals of Internal Medicine 117(10):812–819. Tan, W., X.Fang, J.Li, and X.Liu. 2000. Molecular beacons: A novel DNA probe for nucleic acid and protein studies. Chemistry: A European Journal 6:1107–1111. Tesh, S.N. 1999. Citizen experts in environmental risk. Policy Sciences 32:39–58. Ticehurst, J.R. 1999. Hepatitis E virus. In Murray, P.R., E.J.Baron, M.A. Pfaller, et al. (eds.) Manual of Clinical Microbiology. Seventh Edition. Washington, D.C.: American Society for Microbiology. Tratnyek, P.G. 1998. Correlation analysis of the environmental reactivity of organic substances. Pp. 167–194 in Macalady, D.L. (ed.) Perspectives in Environmental Chemistry. New York: Oxford University Press. Tsang, T.H.F., E.K.Denison, H.V.William, L.V.Venczel, M.M.Ginsberg, and D.J.Vugia. 2000. Acute hepatitis E infection acquired in California. Clinical Infectious Diseases 30:618–619. Tsarev, S.A., L.N.Binn, P.J.Gomatos, R.R.Arthur, M.K.Monier, H.van-Cryck-Gandre, C.F.Longer, and B.L.Innis. 1999. Phylogenetic analysis of hepatitis E virus isolates from Egypt. Journal of Medical Virology 57:68–74. Tuttle, T.Gomez, M.P.Doyle, J.G.Wells, T.Zhao, R.V.Tauxe, and P.M.Griffin. 1999. Lessons from a large outbreak of Escherichia coli O157:H7 infections: Insights into the infectious dose and method of widespread contamination of hamburger patties. Epidemiology and Infection 122(2):185–192. Vapnik, V.N. 1995. The Nature of Statistical Learning Theory. New York: Springer-Verlag.
OCR for page 206
Classifying Drinking Water Contaminants for Regulatory Consideration Vesey, G., N.Ashbolt, E.J.Fricker, D.Deere, K.L.Williams, D.A.Veal, and M.Dorsch. 1998. The use of a ribosomal RNA targeted oligonucleotide probe for fluorescent labeling of viable Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts. Journal of Applied Microbiology 85:429–440. Webler, T., D.Levine, H.Rakel, and O.Renn. 1991. A novel approach to reducing uncertainty: The group Delphi. Technological Forecasting and Social Change 39:253–263. Webster, R.G., W.J.Bean, O.T.German, T.M.Chambers, and Y.Kawaoka. 1992. Evolution and ecology of influenza A viruses. Microbiological Reviews 56:152–179. Weichart, D., and S.Kjelleberg. 1996. Stress resistance and recovery potential of culturable and viable but nonculturable cells of Vibrio vulnificus. Microbiology 142(Pt 4):845–53. Weiss, J.B., H.van Keulen, and T.E.Nash. 1992. Classification of subgroups of Giardia lamblia based upon ribosomal RNA gene sequence using the polymerase chain reaction. Molecular Biochemical Parasitology 54:73. Weiss, S.M., and C.A.Kulikowski. 1990. Computer Systems That Learn: Classification and Prediction Methods from Statistics, Neural Nets, Machine Learning, and Expert Systems. San Mateo, Calif: Morgan Kaufmann Publishers. WHO (World Health Organization). 1998. Zoonotic Non-O157 Shiga Toxin Producing Escherichia coli (STEC). Report of a WHO Scientific Working Group Meeting. Widmer, G., S.Tzipori, C.Fichtenbaum, and J.K.Griffiths. 1998. Genotypic and phenotypic characterization of Cryptosporidium parvum isolates from people with AIDS. Journal of Infectious Diseases 178:834–840. Widmer, G., E.A.Orbacz, and S.Tzipori. 1999. β-tubulin mRNA as a marker of Cryptosporidium parvum oocyst viability. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 65:1584–1588. Wiedenmann, A., P.Krüger, and K.Botzenhart. 1998. PCR detection of Cryptosporidium parvum in environmental samples—a review of published protocols and current developments. Journal of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology 21:150–166. Wommack, K.E., and R.R.Colwell. 2000. Virioplankton: Viruses in aquatic ecosystems. Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews 64(1):69–114. Xiao, L., U.Morgan, J.Limor, A.Escalante, M.Arrowood, W.Shulaw, R. Thompson, R.Fayer, and A.Lal. 1999a. Genetic diversity within Cryptosporidium parvum and related Cryptosporidium species. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 65(8):3386–3391. Xiao, L., L.Escalante, Ch. Yan, I.Sulaiman, A.A.Escalante, R.J.Montali, R. Fayer, and A.A.Lal. 1999b. Phylogenetic analysis of Cryptosporidium parasites based on the small-subunit rRNA gene locus. Applied and Environmental Microbioliology 65(4):1578–1583.
OCR for page 207
Classifying Drinking Water Contaminants for Regulatory Consideration Xiao, L., Morgan, U.M., Fayer, R.C.Thompson, and A.A.Lal. 2000. Cryptosporidium systematics and implications for public health. Parasitology Today 16(7):287–292. Yearley, S. 1999. Computer models and the public’s understanding of science: A case-study analysis. Social Studies of Science 29:845–866. Zupan, J., and J.Gasteiger. 1993. Neural Networks for Chemist: An Introduction. New York: VCH Publishers.
Representative terms from entire chapter: