penicillin was derived from molds), but many currently used antibiotics are semisynthetic and are modified by the addition of artificial chemical components.

Antibiotic resistance:

Property of bacteria that confers the capacity to inactivate or exclude antibiotics or a mechanism that blocks the inhibitory or killing effects of antibiotics.

Antimicrobial agents:

Class of substances that can destroy or inhibit the growth of pathogenic groups of microorganisms, including bacteria, viruses, parasites, and fungi.

ASM (American Society for Microbiology):

The oldest and largest membership organization in the world devoted to a single life science. ASM represents 24 disciplines of microbiological specializations plus a division for microbiology educators (


Microscopic, single-celled organisms that have some biochemical and structural features different from those of animal and plant cells.

Basic research:

Fundamental, theoretical, or experimental investigation to advance scientific knowledge, with immediate practical application not being a direct objective.


For a particular indicator or performance goal, the industry measure of best performance. The benchmarking process identifies the best performance in the industry (health care or non-health care) for a particular process or outcome, determines how that performance is achieved, and applies the lessons learned to improve performance.

Breteau Index:

A derived measurement of the density of larval populations of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes used in vector-borne disease epidemiology (such as dengue and yellow fever). Generally, the higher the value of the Breteau Index the greater the relative abundance of A. aegypti, which results in an increased risk of vector-borne disease transmission in an area during a specified period of time.

Broad-spectrum antibiotic:

An antibiotic effective against a large number of bacterial species. It generally describes antibiotics effective against both gram-positive and gram-negative classes of bacteria.

CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention):

A public health agency of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services whose mission is to promote health and quality of life by preventing and controlling disease, injury, and disability (

Clinical practice guidelines:

Systematically developed statements that assist practitioners and patients with decision making about appropriate health care for specific clinical circumstances.

Clinical research:

Investigations aimed at translating basic, fundamental science into medical practice.

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