FIGURE 1–9 Range of mortality estimates in five complex humanitarian emergencies.

live in Iran or in refugee camps in Pakistan, where many of them fled during the conflict with the Soviet Union that began in 1979.

Evidence of Mortality
Inside Afghanistan

The war in Kabul in 1993 reportedly led to 23,000 deaths, and fighting in the north during the mid- and late 1990s led to numerous massacres and disappearances. Indiscriminate shelling during 1994 and the first three months of 1995 killed 13,000 people, injured 50,000, and left the city without water or electricity (Cohen, 1996). In 1993, Mé decins Sans Frontières (MSF) conducted a retrospective, population-based, household survey of 600 families in Kabul and found a crude mortality rate between 0.5 and 1.0. Mortality was highest among those who had lived in Kabul for a long time and was usually due to gunshot wound. For children, however, deaths were due to measles, diarrhea, and acute respiratory tract infections (Gessner, 1994).

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