To our knowledge, the retrospective mortality survey conducted in Ndjoundou camp in Congo-Brazzaville was the first of this type in a refugee setting. Since then, the same method has been used to document the exodus of Kosovar refugees in Albania and Montenegro in 1999 (Brown et al., 2000; Physicians for Human Rights, 1999). The testimony and advocacy activities, favored and reinforced by the validity of the information collected during these surveys, will obviously not protect a posteriori the victims of injustice, but they can have an impact on the prevention of violence against vulnerable civil populations in the future. Retrospective surveys of the history of migration should be multiplied during complex emergencies. At the same time, their methodology should be assessed and refined.

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