1. hardware, software and communications developments should be coordinated with these scientific and engineering applications (DOE/NSF, 1998).

ii. Report of the NSF/NCEP Workshop on Global Weather and Climate Modeling

This interagency workshop report discusses the future of weather and climate modeling in the United States. An important outcome of this report was the recognition that the diversity of U.S. modeling has created a barrier to efficient collaboration between various modeling groups. Recommendations were:

  1. a common modeling infrastructure should be established to facilitate the evaluation and exchange of technological and research advances in the broader modeling community, with exchanges envisioned not only between the operational and research communities but also between the numerical weather prediction and climate modeling communities;

  2. the common modeling infrastructure should be advanced by establishing modeling standards and guiding principles and by focusing efforts on the development of a finite number of core models, each of which would be devoted to a major area of modeling (e.g., numerical weather prediction, seasonal to interannual prediction, decadal variability);

  3. the National Centers for Environmental Prediction be one of the centers associated with a core model promoting the common modeling infrastructure because of its responsibility for U.S. operational forecasts and because of its critical data assimilation activities.

iii. President's Information Technology Advisory Committee

The President's Information Technology Advisory Committee on future directions in information technology (PITAC, 1999) recommended increased investment in information technology, with priorities in the areas of software, information infrastructure (including networks), and high-end computing systems, noting that “extremely fast computing systems, with both rapid calculation and rapid data movement, are essential to provide accurate weather and climate forecasting ... to conduct scientific research in a variety of different areas and to support critical national interests.”

iv. Accelerated Climate Prediction Initiative

An interagency committee charged with making recommendations on the implementation of the Department of Energy Accelerated Climate Prediction Initiative (ACPI; Gates et al., 1999) produced a report that argued for a climate modeling structure that would include a centralized computing facility; a modeling and research consortium of exclusive us-

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