delivered by public versus private sources; which agencies would take part; what roles they would play; and how the links between operational modeling, sustained observations, and research are to be established and maintained are all open questions and beyond the expertise of the panel.

Recommendation 5: Research studies on the socio-economic aspects of climate and climate modeling should be undertaken at appropriate institutions to design the institutional and governmental structures required to provide effective climate services. This assessment should include:

  1. an examination of present and future societal needs for climate information;

  2. a diagnosis of existing institutional capabilities for providing climate services;

  3. an analysis of institutional and governmental constraints for sustaining a climate observing system, modeling the climate system, communicating with the research community, and delivering useful climate information;

  4. an analysis of the human resources available and needed to accomplish the above tasks;

  5. an analysis of costs and required solutions to remove the constraints in accomplishing the above tasks;

  6. recommendations on the most effective form of institutional and governmental organization to produce and deliver climate information for the public and private sectors.

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