Notes

1. Real names have been used with the permission of the individuals involved.

2. Jonas, A. M. “The Mouse in Biomedical Research.” In Health Benefits of Animal Research, William Gay, ed. Washington, D.C.: Foundation for Biomedical Research, no date.

3. Committee on Use of Laboratory Animals in Biomedical and Behavioral Research, National Research Council and Institute of Medicine. Use of Laboratory Animals in Biomedical and Behavioral Research. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 1988.

4. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare. Public Health Service. Lithium in the Treatment of Mood Disorders. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1970.

5. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences. With Respect to Life: Protecting Human Health and the Environment through Laboratory Animal Research. Research Triangle Park, North Carolina: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, 1989.

6. Leader, R. W., and D. Stark. “The Importance of Animals in Biomedical Research.” In Perspectives in Biology and Medicine, Vol. 30 (Summer 1987), pp. 470–485.

7. Committee on Use of Laboratory Animals in Biomedical and Behavioral Research, National Research Council and Institute of Medicine. Use of Laboratory Animals in Biomedical and Behavioral Research. Washington, D. C.: National Academy Press, 1988.

8. Committee on Models for Biomedical Research, National Research Council. Models for Biomedical Research: A New Perspective. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 1985.

9. U. S. Congress, Office of Technology Assessment. Alternatives to Animal Use in Research, Testing, and Education. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1986.

10. U.S. Department of Agriculture. Animal Welfare Enforcement Report—Fiscal Year 1988. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Agriculture, 1989.

11. Most research animals are humanely killed at some point during the course of the research, but nonhuman primates, because of their expense and special value in animal research, are often used in experiments, such as behavioral experiments, that do not require that they be killed. Only about half of the primates used in research each year are killed.



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SCIENCE, MEDICINE, AND ANIMALS Notes 1. Real names have been used with the permission of the individuals involved. 2. Jonas, A. M. “The Mouse in Biomedical Research.” In Health Benefits of Animal Research, William Gay, ed. Washington, D.C.: Foundation for Biomedical Research, no date. 3. Committee on Use of Laboratory Animals in Biomedical and Behavioral Research, National Research Council and Institute of Medicine. Use of Laboratory Animals in Biomedical and Behavioral Research. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 1988. 4. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare. Public Health Service. Lithium in the Treatment of Mood Disorders. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1970. 5. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences. With Respect to Life: Protecting Human Health and the Environment through Laboratory Animal Research. Research Triangle Park, North Carolina: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, 1989. 6. Leader, R. W., and D. Stark. “The Importance of Animals in Biomedical Research.” In Perspectives in Biology and Medicine, Vol. 30 (Summer 1987), pp. 470–485. 7. Committee on Use of Laboratory Animals in Biomedical and Behavioral Research, National Research Council and Institute of Medicine. Use of Laboratory Animals in Biomedical and Behavioral Research. Washington, D. C.: National Academy Press, 1988. 8. Committee on Models for Biomedical Research, National Research Council. Models for Biomedical Research: A New Perspective. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 1985. 9. U. S. Congress, Office of Technology Assessment. Alternatives to Animal Use in Research, Testing, and Education. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1986. 10. U.S. Department of Agriculture. Animal Welfare Enforcement Report—Fiscal Year 1988. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Agriculture, 1989. 11. Most research animals are humanely killed at some point during the course of the research, but nonhuman primates, because of their expense and special value in animal research, are often used in experiments, such as behavioral experiments, that do not require that they be killed. Only about half of the primates used in research each year are killed.

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SCIENCE, MEDICINE, AND ANIMALS 13. Riley, J. C. Sickness, Recovery, and Death. Iowa City, Iowa: University of Iowa Press, 1989. 14. A number of organizations have compiled summaries of biomedical advances achieved through animal research. See, for example, “Animals in Research” by the Council of Scientific Affairs, American Medical Society, pp. 3602-3606 in Journal of the American Medical Association, Vol. 261 (June 23/30, 1989), and The Use of Animals in Biomedical Research and Testing by the Foundation for Biomedical Research (Washington, D.C.: Foundation for Biomedical Research, 1988). The California Biomedical Research Association in Berkeley, California, has also published a series of brochures on specific diseases being studied in laboratory animals. 15. American Medical Association. Use of Animals in Biomedical Research: The Challenge and Response. Chicago: American Medical Association, 1989. 16. In their study “Scientific Basis for the Support of Biomedical Science” (pp. 105-111 in Science, Vol. 192 [April 9, 1976]), Julius H. Comroe, Jr., and Robert D. Dripps found that of the articles judged essential for 10 major advances in cardiovascular and pulmonary medicine, 62 percent focused on basic research. The authors conclude that “planning for future clinical advances must include generous support for innovative and imaginative research that bears no discernible relation to a clinical problem. ” 17. Foundation for Biomedical Research. The Biomedical Investigator's Handbook. Washington, D.C.: Foundation for Biomedical Research, 1987. 18. Miller, N. E. “The Value of Behavioral Research on Animals.” In American Psychologist, Vol. 40 (1985), pp. 423–440. 19. King, F. A., et al. “Primates.” Science, Vol. 240 (June 10, 1988), pp. 1475–1482. 20. Ewald, B. E., and D. A. Gregg. “Animal Research for Animals.” Pp. 48–58 in The Role of Animals in Biomedical Research. J. A. Sechzer, ed. New York: New York Academy of Sciences, 1983. 21. Loew, F. M. “Animals as Beneficiaries of Biomedical Research Originally Intended for Humans.” ILAR News, Vol. 3 (Fall 1988), pp. 13–15. 22. Committee on Use of Laboratory Animals in Biomedical and Behavioral Research, National Research Council and Institute of Medicine. Use of Laboratory Animals in Biomedical and Behavioral Research. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 1988. 23. Russell, W. M. S., and R. L. Burch. Principles of Humane Experimentation Techniques. Springfield, Illinois: Charles C Thomas, 1959. 24. Two of the seminal works of the animal rights movement are: Singer, P. Animal Liberation. New York: Avon Books, 1977 (paperback edition). Regan, T. The Case for Animal Rights. Berkeley, California: University of California Press, 1983.

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SCIENCE, MEDICINE, AND ANIMALS 25. Cohen, C. “The Case for the Use of Animals in Biomedical Research.” In New England Journal of Medicine, Vol. 315 (Oct. 2, 1986). Responses to Cohen appear in New England Journal of Medicine, Vol. 316 (Feb. 26, 1987), pp. 551–553. 26. Horton, L. “The Enduring Animal Issue.” Journal of the National Cancer Institute, Vol. 81 (May 22, 1989), pp. 736–743. 27. Foundation for Biomedical Research. Animal Rights Movement—Illegal Incidents Summary. Washington, D.C.: Foundation for Biomedical Research, 1990. 28. Foundation for Biomedical Research. Principal Findings of a National Survey on the Use of Animals in Medical Research and Testing. Washington, D.C.: Foundation for Biomedical Research, 1985. 29. Committee on Care and Use of Laboratory Animals, National Research Council. A Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 1985. 30. U.S. Department of Agriculture. Animal Welfare Enforcement Report—Fiscal Year 1988. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Agriculture, 1989. 31. Dubner, R. “Pain Research in Animals.” Pp. 277–282 in National Symposium on Imperatives in Research Animal Use: Scientific Needs and Animal Welfare. Bethesda, Md.: National Institutes of Health, 1984. 32. Foundation for Biomedical Research. The Use of Pound Animals in Biomedical Research and Education. Washington, D.C.: Foundation for Biomedical Research, 1990.