13. Riley, J. C. Sickness, Recovery, and Death. Iowa City, Iowa: University of Iowa Press, 1989.

14. A number of organizations have compiled summaries of biomedical advances achieved through animal research. See, for example, “Animals in Research” by the Council of Scientific Affairs, American Medical Society, pp. 3602-3606 in Journal of the American Medical Association, Vol. 261 (June 23/30, 1989), and The Use of Animals in Biomedical Research and Testing by the Foundation for Biomedical Research (Washington, D.C.: Foundation for Biomedical Research, 1988). The California Biomedical Research Association in Berkeley, California, has also published a series of brochures on specific diseases being studied in laboratory animals.

15. American Medical Association. Use of Animals in Biomedical Research: The Challenge and Response. Chicago: American Medical Association, 1989.

16. In their study “Scientific Basis for the Support of Biomedical Science” (pp. 105-111 in Science, Vol. 192 [April 9, 1976]), Julius H. Comroe, Jr., and Robert D. Dripps found that of the articles judged essential for 10 major advances in cardiovascular and pulmonary medicine, 62 percent focused on basic research. The authors conclude that “planning for future clinical advances must include generous support for innovative and imaginative research that bears no discernible relation to a clinical problem. ”

17. Foundation for Biomedical Research. The Biomedical Investigator's Handbook. Washington, D.C.: Foundation for Biomedical Research, 1987.

18. Miller, N. E. “The Value of Behavioral Research on Animals.” In American Psychologist, Vol. 40 (1985), pp. 423–440.

19. King, F. A., et al. “Primates.” Science, Vol. 240 (June 10, 1988), pp. 1475–1482.

20. Ewald, B. E., and D. A. Gregg. “Animal Research for Animals.” Pp. 48–58 in The Role of Animals in Biomedical Research. J. A. Sechzer, ed. New York: New York Academy of Sciences, 1983.

21. Loew, F. M. “Animals as Beneficiaries of Biomedical Research Originally Intended for Humans.” ILAR News, Vol. 3 (Fall 1988), pp. 13–15.

22. Committee on Use of Laboratory Animals in Biomedical and Behavioral Research, National Research Council and Institute of Medicine. Use of Laboratory Animals in Biomedical and Behavioral Research. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 1988.

23. Russell, W. M. S., and R. L. Burch. Principles of Humane Experimentation Techniques. Springfield, Illinois: Charles C Thomas, 1959.

24. Two of the seminal works of the animal rights movement are: Singer, P. Animal Liberation. New York: Avon Books, 1977 (paperback edition). Regan, T. The Case for Animal Rights. Berkeley, California: University of California Press, 1983.

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