Study Characteristics


Family Variables

Unit of Analysis

Sample Characteristics

Sample Size

Time Between Teacher Test and Outcome Measure

Statistical Procedure Used

Estimated Relation-ship Between Teacher Test Data and Student Test Data or Principal’s Evaluation



Urban elementary schools (103 schools)

Used a school average of grade 6 teachers’ scores; time since test varies based on experience of teacher

Multiple regression

Negative and statistically significant but small

√ (controlled for background factors by entering pretest measures first)


Students not randomly selected; class average of students

119 teachers, 1,836 students

Range of teacher experience (1–40 years); time varied since taking NTE Generally one year

Stepwise regression

Positive and significant association with students’ math and reading; relationships disappeared when teachers’ race was considered


Elementary and secondary teachers

84 elementary and 49 secondary teachers

Correlational (compared means and standard deviations)

Mixed, small correlations


High school juniors

145 districts in North Carolina (105 districts with capital stock info)


Production function

Significant but modest relationship between teacher test scores and student achievement

Tests of Basic Skills and General Knowledge

Three sets of researchers examined the relationships between teachers’ performance on basic skills or general knowledge tests and student achievement: Ehrenberg and Brewer (1995), Ferguson (1991), and Ferguson and Ladd (1996).

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