American Physical Therapy Association. (1997). State licensure reference guide. Washington, DC: Author.

Andrews, J.W., Blackmon, C.R., and Mackey, J.A. (1980). Preservice performance and the National Teachers Exams. Phi Delta Kappan, January, 358–359.

Angoff, W.H. (1971). Scales, norms and equivalent scores. In R.L.Thorndike (Ed.), Educational measurement, 2nd ed. (pp. 508–600). Washington, DC: American Council on Education.

Angus, D.L. (2001). Professionalism and the public good: A brief history of teacher certification. Washington, DC: Thomas B.Fordham Foundation.

Archer, J. (1998). States raising bar for teachers despite pending shortage. Education Week, volume 17, March 25. Available: <www.edweek.com/ew/ewstory.cfm?slug=28praxis.h17&keywords=states%20raising%20bar> [May 7, 2001].

Ayers, J.B., and Qualls, G.S. (1979). Concurrent and predictive validity of the national teacher examinations. Journal of Educational Research, 732, 86–92.

Baker, E.L., and Linn, R.L. (1997). Emerging educational standards of performance in the United States. CSE Technical Report 437. Los Angeles, CA: University of California, National Center for Research on Evaluation, Standards, and Student Testing.

Ballou, D. (1996). Do public schools hire the best applicant? Quarterly Journal of Economics, III(2), 97–134.

Ballou, D., and Podgursky, M. (1997). Teacher pay and teacher quality. Kalamazoo, MI: W.E. Upjohn Institute.

Ballou, D., and Podgursky, M. (1999). Reforming teacher training and recruitment: A critical appraisal of the recommendations of the National Commission on Teaching and America’s Future. Government Union Review, 174.

Bassham, H. (1962). Teacher understanding and pupil efficiency in mathematics—A study of relationship. Arithmetic Teacher, 9, 383–387.

Begle, E.G. (1972). Teacher knowledge and student achievement in algebra. School_Mathematics Study Group, Report Number 9 .

Blair, J. (1999). Teacher ed. (Education) riled over federal plan. Education Week 18 (43), 1, 32–33. Available: <www.edweek.com/ew/vol-18/43hea.h18> [May 7, 2001].

Bond, L. (1998a). Culturally responsive pedagogy and the assessment of accomplished teaching. Journal of Negro Education, 673, 242–254.

Bond, L. (1998b). Disparate impact and teacher certification. Journal of Personnel Evaluation in Education, 12(2), 211–220.

Bond, L. (2000). The measurement of teaching ability. Paper prepared for the Teacher Quality Project Panel Meeting, Department of Education and American Institutes for Research, Washington, DC.

Bond, L., Jaeger, R.M., and Hatti, J.A. (2000). Accomplished teaching: A validation of National Board Certification. Washington, DC: National Board for Professional Teaching Standards.

Brophy, J., and Good, T.L. (1986). Teacher behavior and student achievement. In M.C.Wittrock (Ed.), Handbook of research on teaching, pp. 328–375. New York: MacMillan.

Brunsman, B.A., Oster, J., Tanaka, D., Carlson, R.E., and Salley, R. (1999). Annual report on the Multiple Subjects Assessment for Teachers (MSAT). Sacramento, CA: California Commission on Teacher Credentialing.

Brunsman, B.A., Carlson, R.E., and Tierney, D. (2000). Annual report on the Praxis and SSAT examinations in English, Mathematics, and Social Science. Sacramento, CA: California Commission on Teacher Credentialing.

Bush, G.W. (2001). No child left behind. Available: www.ed.gov/inits/nclb/ [May 7, 2001].


Carlson, R.E., Wright, D., McLean, M. and Sandy, M.V. (2000). Report on the California Basic Educational Skills Test (CBEST). Sacramento, CA: California Commission on Teacher Credentialing.

Case, S.M., Swanson, D.B., Ripkey, D.R., Bowles, L.T., and Melnick, D.E. (1996). Performance of the class of 1994 in the new era of USMLE. Academic Medicine, 71,10 (October Supplement), 91–93.



The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement