pleted their baccalaureate and meet the other stated requirements prior to admittance to the teacher preparation program. Several of the state’s universities do allow undergraduates to enroll in teacher education programs with the provision that these requirements be met prior to formal enrollment in a program and student teaching. Upon completion of most teacher preparation programs, candidates are awarded a preliminary license that is valid for five years.

There are several different kinds of preliminary teacher licenses in California, and most institutions offer preparation for several of the licenses. The most common licenses granted by the state are the Multiple Subject Teaching Credential and the Single Subject Teaching Credential. The Multiple Subject Teaching Credential authorizes public school teaching in a self-contained classroom in preschool, kindergarten, grades 1 through 12, and classes organized primarily for adults. Secondary school teachers are granted a Single Subject Teaching Credential, which authorizes teaching in a departmentalized classroom. Single subject credentials are issued in 13 different subject-areas, and the holder is authorized to teach only in the subject area(s) listed. Due to the diversity of student enrollment in California, the state has also instituted a multiple- and single-subject certification with either a cross-cultural, language, and academic development emphasis (CLAD) or bilingual, cross-cultural, language, and academic development emphasis (BCLAD).

Although the higher-education institutions have enhanced/added to their teacher preparation programs, there continues to be a shortage of teachers. To assuage the need for licensed teachers, the state of California granted initial licensure to some 5,000 teachers from out of state in the 1997–1998 school year. The same year the California legislature passed a number of provisions that eased the transition of teachers from other states into California. The state also granted 31,061 emergency permits and 4,791 waivers in the 1997–1998 school year (out of the total 63,418 initial licensures granted by the state). Teachers must be working toward receiving initial licensure while on internships, emergency permits, or waivers. Several programs have been developed to support teachers with emergency or internship certification while they seek initial licensure. Each type of program is highlighted below.

University Internship Programs

Many higher-education institutions in the state have entered into a partnership with local school districts and established university internship programs. The programs are designed to provide participants with classroom experience while they are enrolled in the academic teacher preparation program. A candidate is issued a “university internship credential” once enrolled in a California Commission on Teacher Credentialing-approved internship program, with verification of employment from the relevant school district. University internship credentials are offered in several areas, including Multiple Subject Teaching,



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