Single Subject Teaching, Multiple Subject Teaching with CLAD and BCLAD emphases, and Single Subject Teaching with CLAD and BCLAD emphases.

Enrollment requirements for university internship programs vary depending on the type of credential sought and the requirements established by the respective college or university in tandem with the respective school district. All require possession of a bachelor’s degree, passage of the CBEST, and completion of at least 80 percent of the subject matter competence requirement. Currently, there are 20 California state universities, 7 Universities of California, and 22 private institutions with approved internship programs. In the 1997–1998 academic year, 2,306 individuals were issued internship credentials to teach through university partnership programs across the state.

The university internship can be based on several different models depending on the needs of the districts that the universities are serving. Institutions such as California State University, Hayward, determine in partnership with the respective school districts (Alameda and Contra Costa counties and Oakland, Concord, and Hayward school districts) whether a student participates in the program as a student teacher or a full-paid intern. Depending on the partnership and the needs of the district, the program might be community based with the intern teaching all day and enrolled in classes at night. Under this kind of program, such as with the Oakland Unified School District, interns seeking a single-subject credential complete the program in seven quarters. In other partnerships, students may spend considerable time in the schools gaining student teaching experience prior to taking full leadership of a classroom. For example, students enrolled in the School-University Partnership Internship Program at San Jose State attend school for two summers, with a full paid internship for two academic years, though the student remains in the role of a student teacher throughout the program.

District Internship Programs

During the 1997–1998 school year, there were 103 districts with 20 percent or more of the teacher staff on emergency permits or waivers. The majority of the districts with high numbers of teachers on emergency permits or waivers are in urban areas. For example, in the Los Angeles area, some districts report that 30 to 50 percent of the teachers in their schools have emergency permits or waivers, with three out of four new hires uncredentialed in the Los Angeles Unified School District as of August 2000 (www.lausd.k12.ca.us/).

To decrease the number of teachers with emergency permits and waivers, six large urban districts have established district intern programs taught by school district employees. The teachers participating in this program are granted a “district intern certificate,” valid for two years, from the state. To qualify for a district intern certificate, an individual must have completed a baccalaureate or higher degree from a regionally accredited college or university. To receive the



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