Carl A.Grant is the Hoefs-Bascom professor of teacher education and a professor of Afro-American studies at the University of Wisconsin, Madison. His research focuses on multicultural education and teacher education, and he is president of the National Association for Multicultural Education. Dr. Grant received his Ph.D. in education, curriculum, and instruction from the University of Wisconsin.

Milton D.Hakel is a professor and the Ohio Board of Regents eminent scholar in psychology at Bowling Green State University. His research focuses on leadership development, performance appraisal, job analysis and compensation, and employee selection. He also is president of Organizational Research and Development, Inc., a firm that provides human resources research consultation. Dr. Hakel serves on the National Research Council’s Board on Testing and Assessment. He received his Ph.D. in psychology from the University of Minnesota.

Abigail L.Hughes is associate commissioner of the Division of Evaluation and Research, Connecticut State Department of Education and is responsible for the state’s student assessment program, beginning teacher induction program, and statewide data collection, evaluation, and research. Prior to joining the Connecticut agency, she served as director of instructional services for a regional service agency in New York state, as a teacher in Maryland and Florida, and as a curriculum coordinator in Ohio. Dr. Hughes received her Ph.D. in educational administration and an M.B.A. from Ohio State University.

Mary M.Kennedy is a professor in the College of Education at Michigan State University, where her research focuses on teacher education and learning. From 1986 through 1993, she directed the National Center for Research on Teacher Learning, a federally funded research center based at Michigan State University. Dr. Kennedy received her Ph.D. in educational psychology from Michigan State University.

Stephen P.Klein is a senior research scientist at the RAND Corporation, where he conducts studies on educational testing policies and practices. He also provides consulting services for various certification and licensing examinations. Dr. Klein served on the National Research Council’s Committee on Appropriate Test Use and the Committee on Education Finance. He is also coauthor of A License to Teach: Raising Standards for Teaching (Jossey-Bass Inc., 1999), Dr. Klein received his Ph.D. in industrial psychology from Purdue University.

Catherine Manski is a lecturer and field instructor for English student teachers in the Department of English, University of Illinois, Chicago. Previously, she was a social studies and English-as-a-second-language teacher at West High



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