School in Madison, Wisconsin. Ms. Manski received her M.S. in curriculum and instruction from the University of Wisconsin, Madison.

C.Ford Morishita is a biology teacher at Clackamas High School in Milwaukie, Oregon, and was the 1997 Oregon State Teacher of the Year. He also teaches in the School of Education at Portland State University. He received his M.A.T. in biological science from Lewis and Clark College.

Pamela A.Moss is an associate professor in the School of Education at the University of Michigan. Her research focuses on the validity of educational assessments, particularly the assessment of teachers. Dr. Moss serves on the joint committee revising the Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing of the American Educational Research Association, the American Psychological Association, and the National Council of Measurement in Education. She also cochairs the technical advisory committee for the Interstate New Teacher Assessment and Support Consortium and serves on the Measurement Research Advisory Panel of the National Board for Professional Teaching Standards. Dr. Moss received her Ph.D. in educational research methodology from the University of Pittsburgh.

Barbara S.Plake is director of the Oscar and Luella Buros Center for Testing and the W.C.Meierhenry distinguished university professor at the University of Nebraska, Lincoln. She is coeditor of the Mental Measurements Yearbook and Applied Measurement in Education. Dr. Plake serves on the American Psychological Association’s Committee on Psychological Tests and Assessments. She received her Ph.D. in educational statistics and measurement from the University of Iowa.

David L.Rose is an attorney in private practice in Washington, D.C., specializing in equal employment opportunity issues and other employment-related matters. From 1969 through 1987, he was chief of the Employment Litigation Section, Civil Rights Division, U.S. Department of Justice, which is responsible for enforcement of laws requiring nondiscrimination in employment and equal employment opportunity. Mr. Rose received his L.L.B. from Harvard Law School.

Portia Holmes Shields is president of Albany State University. A former teacher and reading specialist, she has also served as the dean of the School of Education at Howard University. Dr. Shields received her Ph.D. in early childhood and elementary education from the University of Maryland, College Park.

James W.Stigler is a professor of psychology at the University of California, Los Angeles. His research focuses on comparative studies of mathematics and



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