There is no single, comprehensive, integrated technical manual for tests in the Praxis series.

Validation Studies: Content-related evidence of validity is reported. Differential passing rates are reported only for white and African American examinees (due to small sample sizes). In 1998 to 1999, across all states, the average passing rate for white examinees was 82% and for African American examinees 53%.

Cost and Feasibility: There are no special logistical, space, or personnel requirements for the paper-and-pencil administration. For 2000 to 2001, there is a $35 nonrefundable registration fee and a $70 fee for the test.

Study of Long-Term Consequences of Licensure Program: No information is reported on the long-term consequences of Mathematics: Proofs, Models, and Problems, Part 1 as a component of a total licensure program.

Overall Evaluation: Overall, the test is well constructed and has reasonably good psychometric properties. The procedures for test development, validation, and standard setting are consistent with current measurement practices. The equating strategy is problematic, especially given the small sample sizes. The cost of the study guide may be prohibitive for some candidates.

SOURCE: Impara, 2000b.

Biology: Content Knowledge Tests, Parts 1 and 2

The Biology: Content Knowledge Tests, Parts 1 and 2 seem to be well constructed and have moderate to good psychometric properties. The test development and standard-setting procedures are consistent with current practice (see Box 5–5). There was a lack of information on differential item functioning reported for the biology tests. No information was provided regarding the equating of alternate forms of the test (this was the base form). Only limited statistical data are available.


Test fairness issues are important to test quality. In this section of the report, the committee examines data for racial/ethnic minority and majority teacher candidates on several teacher licensing tests; compares these data to data from other large-scale tests; and discusses issues of test bias, the consequences of disparate impact, and the policy implications of the data.

Historically and currently, African American and Hispanic candidates usually have substantially lower passing rates on teacher licensure tests than white candidates (Garcia, 1985; George, 1985; Goertz and Pitcher, 1985; Graham, 1987; Rebell, 1986; Smith, 1987; Gitomer et al., 1999; Mehrens, 1999; Brunsman et al., 1999; Brunsman et al., 2000; Carlson et al., 2000). The size of the gap in passing

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