REVIEW OF THE ARMY NON-STOCKPILE CHEMICAL MATERIEL DISPOSAL PROGRAM

Disposal of Neutralent Wastes

COMMITTEE ON REVIEW AND EVALUATION OF THE ARMY NON-STOCKPILE CHEMICAL MATERIEL DISPOSAL PROGRAM

BOARD ON ARMY SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY

DIVISION ON ENGINEERING AND PHYSICAL SCIENCES

NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL

NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS
Washington, D.C.



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Disposal of Neutralent Wastes REVIEW OF THE ARMY NON-STOCKPILE CHEMICAL MATERIEL DISPOSAL PROGRAM Disposal of Neutralent Wastes COMMITTEE ON REVIEW AND EVALUATION OF THE ARMY NON-STOCKPILE CHEMICAL MATERIEL DISPOSAL PROGRAM BOARD ON ARMY SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY DIVISION ON ENGINEERING AND PHYSICAL SCIENCES NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C.

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Disposal of Neutralent Wastes National Academy Press 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20418 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competencies and with regard for appropriate balance. This is a report of work supported by Contract DAAG55-98-C-0046 between the U.S. Army and the National Academy of Sciences. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the view of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project. International Standard Book Number: 0-309-07287-5 Library of Congress Catalog Card Number: 2001087475 Limited copies are available from: Board on Army Science and Technology National Research Council 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W. Washington, DC 20418 (202) 334-3118 Additional copies are available for sale from: National Academy Press Box 285 2101 Constitution Ave., N.W. Washington, DC 20055 (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313 (in the Washington Metropolitan area) http://www.nap.edu Copyright 2001 by the National Academy of Sciences All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America.

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Disposal of Neutralent Wastes THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES National Academy of Sciences National Academy of Engineering Institute of Medicine National Research Council The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. William A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts and Dr. William A. Wulf are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council.

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Disposal of Neutralent Wastes COMMITTEE ON REVIEW AND EVALUATION OF THE ARMY NON-STOCKPILE CHEMICAL MATERIEL DISPOSAL PROGRAM JOHN B. CARBERRY, chair, E.I. duPont de Nemours and Company, Wilmington, Delaware JOHN C. ALLEN, Battelle Memorial Institute, Washington, D.C. RICHARD J. AYEN, Waste Management, Inc. (retired), Wakefield, Rhode Island ROBERT A. BEAUDET, University of Southern California, Los Angeles LISA M. BENDIXEN, Arthur D. Little, Inc., Cambridge, Massachusetts JOAN B. BERKOWITZ, Farkas Berkowitz and Company, Washington, D.C. JUDITH A. BRADBURY, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Washington, D.C. MARTIN C. EDELSON, Ames Laboratory, Ames, Iowa SIDNEY J. GREEN, TerraTek, Inc., Salt Lake City, Utah PAUL F. KAVANAUGH, consultant, Fairfax, Virginia DOUGLAS M. MEDVILLE, MITRE (retired), Reston, Virginia WINIFRED G. PALMER, Henry M. Jackson Foundation for the Advancement of Military Medicine, Bethesda, Maryland JAMES P. PASTORICK, GEOPHEX UXO, Alexandria, Virginia WILLIAM J. WALSH, Pepper Hamilton LLP, Washington, D.C. RONALD L. WOODFIN, Sandia National Laboratories (retired), Albuquerque, New Mexico Staff STERLING J. RIDEOUT, JR., study director DELPHINE D. GLAZE, administrative assistant GREG EYRING, consultant CAROL R. ARENBERG, editor, Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences

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Disposal of Neutralent Wastes BOARD ON ARMY SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY WILLIAM H. FORSTER, chair, Northrop Grumman Corporation, Baltimore, Maryland RICHARD A. CONWAY, Union Carbide Corporation (retired), Charleston, West Virginia GILBERT F. DECKER, Walt Disney Imagineering, Glendale, California PATRICK F. FLYNN, Cummins Engine Company, Inc., Columbus, Indiana EDWARD J. HAUG, University of Iowa, Iowa City ROBERT J. HEASTON, Guidance and Control Information Analysis Center (retired), Naperville, Illinois GERALD J. IAFRATE, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana DONALD R. KEITH, Cypress International, Alexandria, Virginia KATHRYN V. LOGAN, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Vicksburg, Mississippi JOHN E. MILLER, Oracle Corporation, Reston, Virginia JOHN H. MOXLEY, Korn/Ferry International, Los Angeles, California STEWART D. PERSONICK, Drexel University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania MILLARD F. ROSE, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, Alabama GEORGE T. SINGLEY, III, Hicks and Associates, Inc., McLean, Virginia CLARENCE G. THORNTON, Army Research Laboratories (retired), Colts Neck, New Jersey JOHN D. VENABLES, Venables and Associates, Towson, Maryland JOSEPH J. VERVIER, ENSCO, Inc., Melbourne, Florida ALLEN C. WARD, Ward Synthesis, Inc., Ann Arbor, Michigan Staff BRUCE A. BRAUN, director MICHAEL A. CLARKE, associate director WILLIAM E. CAMPBELL, administrative coordinator CHRIS JONES, financial associate REBECCA M. LUCCHESE, senior project assistant DEANNA P. SPARGER, senior project assistant

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Disposal of Neutralent Wastes Preface The Committee on Review and Evaluation of the Army Non-Stockpile Chemical Materiel Disposal Program was appointed by the National Research Council (NRC) to conduct studies on technical aspects of the U.S. Army Non-Stockpile Chemical Materiel Disposal Program. During its first year, the committee evaluated the Army's plans to dispose of chemical agent identification sets (CAIS)—test kits used for training soldiers. During this second year, the committee has evaluated nonincineration technologies that could be used for the treatment of wastes from the neutralization of nonstockpile materiel. During its initial meetings, the committee was given a number of briefings and held subsequent deliberations. The committee is grateful to the many individuals, particularly Lt. Col. Christopher Ross, Project Manager for Non-Stockpile Chemical Materiel, his staff, and his predecessor, Col. Edmund W. (“Ned”) Libby, who provided technical information and insights during these briefings. This information provided a sound foundation for the committee's deliberations. This study was conducted under the auspices of the NRC's Board on Army Science and Technology. The committee acknowledges the support of the director, Bruce A. Braun, his staff, committee members, the study director, support staff, and the publication staff who all worked diligently on a demanding schedule to produce this report. John B. Carberry, chair Committee on Review and Evaluation of the Non-Stockpile Chemical Materiel Disposal Program

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Disposal of Neutralent Wastes Acknowledgments This report has been reviewed by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the NRC's Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments to assist the authors and the NRC in making the published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The content of the review comments and the draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their participation in the review of this report: James R. Fair, University of Texas Richard S. Magee, New Jersey Institute of Technology John L. Margrave, Rice University Walter G. May, University of Illinois Alvin H. Mushkatel, Arizona State University George W. Parshall, E.I. duPont de Nemours and Company (retired) Michael J. Ryan, NFT, Inc. R. Peter Stickles, Arthur D. Little, Inc. William Tumas, Los Alamos National Laboratory Leo Weitzman, LVW Associates, Inc. Although the reviewers listed above provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Robert Connick, appointed by the NRC Report Review Committee, who was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution.

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Disposal of Neutralent Wastes Contents     EXECUTIVE SUMMARY   1  1   OVERVIEW   6      Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program,   6      Non-Stockpile Chemical Materiel Disposal Program,   7      Applicability of ACWA Technologies,   10      Role of the National Research Council,   10      Scope of This Study,   10      Structure of This Report,   11  2   WASTE STREAMS FROM TRANSPORTABLE TREATMENT SYSTEMS   12      Chemical Agent Identification Sets,   12      Rapid Response System,   12      Munitions Management Device,   13      Toxicity of Neutralents,   14      Federal and State Requirements,   15  3   CRITERIA FOR EVALUATING TECHNOLOGIES   20      Temperature Classifications,   20      Pressure Classifications,   20      Selection Criteria,   20      Top Priority Criteria,   21      Important Criteria,   22  4   DESCRIPTIONS AND EVALUATIONS OF TECHNOLOGIES   23      Chemical Oxidation,   23      Electrochemical Oxidation,   26      Biodegradation,   30      Solvated-Electron Technology,   32      Wet-Air/O2 Oxidation,   34      Supercritical Water Oxidation,   37      Gas-Phase Chemical Reduction,   39      Plasma-Arc Technology,   41      Overall Rankings,   43

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Disposal of Neutralent Wastes  5   PUBLIC ACCEPTANCE AND REGULATORY CONSIDERATIONS   47      Public Acceptance,   47      Regulatory Stakeholders,   49  6   FINDINGS AND RECOMMENDATIONS   52      Technical Issues,   52      Regulatory Issues and Public Involvement,   53     REFERENCES   54     APPENDIXES       A Biographical Sketches of Committee Members,   59     B Committee Meetings and Other Activities,   62

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Disposal of Neutralent Wastes Figures and Tables FIGURES  1-1   Flow chart for the disposal of nonstockpile CWM in transportable Systems,   9  4-1   Comparative operating temperatures and pressures,   44 TABLES  ES-1   Transportable Treatment Systems and Neutralent Waste Streams Considered in This Study,   2  1-1   Transportable Treatment Systems for Nonstockpile Chemical Materiel,   8  2-1   CAIS Chemical Agents and Treatment Processes in the Rapid Response System,   13  2-2   Composition of Neutralent Waste Streams from the Rapid Response System,   14  2-3   Reagents Used to Neutralize Chemical Agents in the MMD,   15  2-4   Composition of Sarin (GB) Neutralent Wastes from Bench-Scale Tests of the MMD,   16  2-5   Composition of Mustard (HD) Neutralent Wastes from Bench-Scale Tests of the MMD,   17  2-6   Composition of VX Neutralent Wastes from Bench-Scale Tests of the MMD,   18  2-7   Composition of Phosgene Neutralent Wastes from Bench-Scale Tests of the MMD,   18  2-8   Toxicity of Components of the O/SSs Used in the RRS and MMD,   19  3-1   Technologies Selected for Evaluation,   21  4-1a   Chemical Oxidation: Top Priority Criteria,   24  4-1b   Chemical Oxidation: Important Criteria,   25  4-2a   Electrochemical Oxidation Ag(II): Top Priority Criteria,   27  4-2b   Electrochemical Oxidation Ag(II): Important Criteria,   28  4-3a   Electrochemical Oxidation Ce(IV): Top Priority Criteria,   29  4-3b   Electrochemical Oxidation Ce(IV): Important Criteria,   30  4-4a   Biodegradation: Top Priority Criteria,   31  4-4b   Biodegradation: Important Criteria,   32  4-5a   Solvated-Electron Technology: Top Priority Criteria,   33  4-5b   Solvated-Electron Technology: Important Criteria,   34  4-6a   Wet-Air/O2 Oxidation: Top Priority Criteria,   35  4-6b   Wet-Air/O2 Oxidation: Important Criteria,   36  4-7a   Supercritical Water Oxidation: Top Priority Criteria,   38  4-7b   Supercritical Water Oxidation: Important Criteria,   39

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Disposal of Neutralent Wastes  4-8a   Gas-Phase Chemical Reduction: Top Priority Criteria,   40  4-8b   Gas-Phase Chemical Reduction: Important Criteria,   41  4-9a   Plasma-Arc Technology: Top Priority Criteria,   42  4-9b   Plasma-Arc Technology: Important Criteria,   43

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Disposal of Neutralent Wastes Acronyms and Abbreviations ACWA Assembled Chemical Weapons Assessment (Program) ATAP Alternative Technology Approaches Program CAIS chemical agent identification sets CWC Chemical Weapons Convention CWM chemical warfare materiel CVA chlorovinylarsonic acid DCDMH dichloro-dimethylhydantoin DOT U.S. Department of Transportation EDS explosive destruction system EPA Environmental Protection Agency FOTW federally owned treatment works GB sarin (nerve agent) GPCR gas-phase chemical reduction H sulfur mustard HD sulfur mustard (distilled) HN-1, H-3 nitrogen mustard MEA monoethanolamine MMD munitions management device NATO North Atlantic Treaty Organization NSCMP Non-Stockpile Chemical Materiel Program NSCWCC Non-Stockpile Chemical Weapons Citizens Coalition O/SS oxidant/solvent system PCB polychlorinated biphenyl PINS portable isotopic neutron spectroscopy PMCD Program Manager for Chemical Demilitarization POTW publicly owned treatment works ppb parts per billion ppm parts per million psia pounds per square inch absolute RCRA Resource Conservation and Recovery Act RRS rapid response system SCWO supercritical water oxidation SET solvated-electron technology TCLP toxic characteristic leaching procedure TSDF treatment, storage, and disposal facility UV ultraviolet VOC volatile organic compound VX a nerve agent WAO wet-air/O2 oxidation

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