References

Battelle 1997 Evaluation of the Vesicating Properties of Neutralized Sulfur Mustard Final Report Columbus, Ohio : Battelle

Bradbury, J.A. K.M. Branch J.H. Heerwagen and E.B. Liebow 1994 Community Viewpoints of the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program Washington, D.C. : Battelle, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

Brankowitz, W. 2000 U.S. Army Non-Stockpile Chemical Materiel Product (NSCMP) Project Overview/Status Presentation by William Brankowitz, Office of the Project Manager, Non-Stockpile Chemical Materiel, to the Committee on Review and Evaluation of the Army Non-Stockpile Chemical Materiel Disposal Program, National Research Council, Washington, D.C., May 8, 2000

Center for Health, Environment, and Justice 1999 The American People's Dioxin Report Falls Church, Va. : Center for Health, Environment, and Justice

Cooper, J.F. G.B. Balazs and P. Lewis 1999 Direct Chemical Oxidation: An Application to Hazardous Waste Treatment in Demilitarization Final Report to Joint DOE/DOD Project, DOD Office of Munitions, FY 1997-8, UCID-ID-134365. May 1999 Livermore, California Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories

Creighton, J.L. 1999 How to Design a Public Participation Program Washington, D.C. : U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Intergovernmental and Public Accountability

Dekleva, L.A. and J. Gannon 2000 DuPont's P&B Screening Tool for Prioritization of Chemicals for Risk Assessment Presented at Environmental Science in the 21st Century: Paradigms, Opportunities, and Challenges. 21st Annual Meeting of the Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC) North America, Nashville, Tennessee, November 12–16, 2000

Dietrich, M.J. T.L. Randall and P.J. Canney 1985 Wet air oxidation of hazardous organics in wastewater Environmental Progress 4(3) : 171–177

DOT (U.S. Department of Transportation) 1997 Dermal Toxicity Evaluation of Neutralized CAIS Nonstockpile Chemical Materiel Program Report Washington, D.C. : U.S. Department of Transportation

Dugway Proving Ground 1998 RCRA permit for MMD-1 testing issued by the State of Utah Available on line at: http://www.deq.state.ut.us/eqshw/cds/MMDPermit.htm

DuPont Specialty Chemicals 1992 Data Sheet on Oxone(R) Monopersulfate Compound Available on line at URL: http://www.dupont.com/oxone/techinfo/index.html (October 2, 2000)

EPA 2000a Discussion between members of the Committee on Review of the Non-Stockpile Chemical Materiel Disposal Program and representatives of the EPA Office of Solid Waste, Arlington, Virginia, April 28, 2000

EPA 2000b EPA Toxic Release Inventory, Envirofacts Warehouse Available on line at URL: http://oaspub.epa.gov/enviro/tris_control.tris_print?tris_id=84074MXMGNROWLE

Funtowicz, S.O. and J.R. Ravetz 1985 Three Types of Risk Assessment: A Methodological Analysis Pp. 831–848 in Environmental Impact Assessment, Technology Assessment, and Risk Analysis edited by V.T. Covello J.L. Mumpower P.J. Stallen and V.R. Uppuluri New York : Springer-Verlag

Gieseking, J.K. 1999 Non-Stockpile Waste Streams/Inventory/Monitoring Briefing by John K. Gieseking, Project Officer for the Office of the Product Manager for Non-Stockpile Chemical Materiel, to the Committee on Review and Evaluation of the Army Non-Stockpile Chemical Materiel Disposal Program, National Research Council, Washington, D.C., June 15, 1999

Gieseking, J.K. 2000 Personal communication between John K. Gieseking, RRS Program Manager for the Office of the Product Manager for Non-Stockpile Chemical Materiel, and Mr. Greg Eyring, Consultant for the National Research Council. September 2000

Greenpeace 1998 Technical Criteria for the Destruction of Stockpiled Persistant Organic Pollutants Washington, D.C. : Greenpeace

GRI (Gas Research Institute) 2000 Chemical Oxidation with or without UV Enhancement: Technology Description Available on line at URL: www.gri.org .

Holm, F.W. 1998 Appendix: Descriptions of Alternative Demilitarization Technologies and Estimated Mass Balances Pp. 176–177 in Effluents from Alternative Demilitarization Technologies Vol. 22 NATO ASI Series. Boston, Mass. : Kluwer Academic Publishers

Hovanek, J.W. L.L. Szafraniec J.M. Albizo W.T. Beaudry V.D. Henderson Y.-C. Yang B.K. MacIver and L. Procell 1993 Evaluation of Standard and Alternative Methods for the Decontamination of VX and HD in Chemical Agent Disposal Facilities ERDEC-TR-054 Aberdeen Proving Ground, Md. : Edgewood Research, Development and Engineering Center.

Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory 2000 Direct Chemical Oxidation of Organic Wastes Available on line at URL: www-ep.es.llnl.gov

Mikolajczyk, M. 1996 Fundamental Chemistry of Chemical Warfare Agents and Interrelationships in Technologies Pp. 10–11 in Scientific Advances in Alternative Demilitarization Technologies Vol. 6 NATO ASI Series. Boston, Mass. : Kluwer Academic Publishers

Mitretek 1999 Assessment of ACWA Technologies and Equipment for Treatment of Non-Stockpile Wastes and Chemical Materiel Technical Report MTR 1999-32V1 McLean, Va. : Mitretek

Morgan, E.W. R.A. Renne B. McVeety R. Johnson R.L. Phelps F-S. Yin J.T. Pierce J. Blessing P.W. Mellick E.J. Olajos and H. Salem 1997 Head-Only Inhalation Toxicity Study (LC50) of Chemical Agent Identification Sets (CAIS) Red Process Waste Streams in Rats



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Disposal of Neutralent Wastes References Battelle 1997 Evaluation of the Vesicating Properties of Neutralized Sulfur Mustard Final Report Columbus, Ohio : Battelle Bradbury, J.A. K.M. Branch J.H. Heerwagen and E.B. Liebow 1994 Community Viewpoints of the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program Washington, D.C. : Battelle, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Brankowitz, W. 2000 U.S. Army Non-Stockpile Chemical Materiel Product (NSCMP) Project Overview/Status Presentation by William Brankowitz, Office of the Project Manager, Non-Stockpile Chemical Materiel, to the Committee on Review and Evaluation of the Army Non-Stockpile Chemical Materiel Disposal Program, National Research Council, Washington, D.C., May 8, 2000 Center for Health, Environment, and Justice 1999 The American People's Dioxin Report Falls Church, Va. : Center for Health, Environment, and Justice Cooper, J.F. G.B. Balazs and P. Lewis 1999 Direct Chemical Oxidation: An Application to Hazardous Waste Treatment in Demilitarization Final Report to Joint DOE/DOD Project, DOD Office of Munitions, FY 1997-8, UCID-ID-134365. May 1999 Livermore, California Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories Creighton, J.L. 1999 How to Design a Public Participation Program Washington, D.C. : U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Intergovernmental and Public Accountability Dekleva, L.A. and J. Gannon 2000 DuPont's P&B Screening Tool for Prioritization of Chemicals for Risk Assessment Presented at Environmental Science in the 21st Century: Paradigms, Opportunities, and Challenges. 21st Annual Meeting of the Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC) North America, Nashville, Tennessee, November 12–16, 2000 Dietrich, M.J. T.L. Randall and P.J. Canney 1985 Wet air oxidation of hazardous organics in wastewater Environmental Progress 4(3) : 171–177 DOT (U.S. Department of Transportation) 1997 Dermal Toxicity Evaluation of Neutralized CAIS Nonstockpile Chemical Materiel Program Report Washington, D.C. : U.S. Department of Transportation Dugway Proving Ground 1998 RCRA permit for MMD-1 testing issued by the State of Utah Available on line at: http://www.deq.state.ut.us/eqshw/cds/MMDPermit.htm DuPont Specialty Chemicals 1992 Data Sheet on Oxone(R) Monopersulfate Compound Available on line at URL: http://www.dupont.com/oxone/techinfo/index.html (October 2, 2000) EPA 2000a Discussion between members of the Committee on Review of the Non-Stockpile Chemical Materiel Disposal Program and representatives of the EPA Office of Solid Waste, Arlington, Virginia, April 28, 2000 EPA 2000b EPA Toxic Release Inventory, Envirofacts Warehouse Available on line at URL: http://oaspub.epa.gov/enviro/tris_control.tris_print?tris_id=84074MXMGNROWLE Funtowicz, S.O. and J.R. Ravetz 1985 Three Types of Risk Assessment: A Methodological Analysis Pp. 831–848 in Environmental Impact Assessment, Technology Assessment, and Risk Analysis edited by V.T. Covello J.L. Mumpower P.J. Stallen and V.R. Uppuluri New York : Springer-Verlag Gieseking, J.K. 1999 Non-Stockpile Waste Streams/Inventory/Monitoring Briefing by John K. Gieseking, Project Officer for the Office of the Product Manager for Non-Stockpile Chemical Materiel, to the Committee on Review and Evaluation of the Army Non-Stockpile Chemical Materiel Disposal Program, National Research Council, Washington, D.C., June 15, 1999 Gieseking, J.K. 2000 Personal communication between John K. Gieseking, RRS Program Manager for the Office of the Product Manager for Non-Stockpile Chemical Materiel, and Mr. Greg Eyring, Consultant for the National Research Council. September 2000 Greenpeace 1998 Technical Criteria for the Destruction of Stockpiled Persistant Organic Pollutants Washington, D.C. : Greenpeace GRI (Gas Research Institute) 2000 Chemical Oxidation with or without UV Enhancement: Technology Description Available on line at URL: www.gri.org . Holm, F.W. 1998 Appendix: Descriptions of Alternative Demilitarization Technologies and Estimated Mass Balances Pp. 176–177 in Effluents from Alternative Demilitarization Technologies Vol. 22 NATO ASI Series. Boston, Mass. : Kluwer Academic Publishers Hovanek, J.W. L.L. Szafraniec J.M. Albizo W.T. Beaudry V.D. Henderson Y.-C. Yang B.K. MacIver and L. Procell 1993 Evaluation of Standard and Alternative Methods for the Decontamination of VX and HD in Chemical Agent Disposal Facilities ERDEC-TR-054 Aberdeen Proving Ground, Md. : Edgewood Research, Development and Engineering Center. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory 2000 Direct Chemical Oxidation of Organic Wastes Available on line at URL: www-ep.es.llnl.gov Mikolajczyk, M. 1996 Fundamental Chemistry of Chemical Warfare Agents and Interrelationships in Technologies Pp. 10–11 in Scientific Advances in Alternative Demilitarization Technologies Vol. 6 NATO ASI Series. Boston, Mass. : Kluwer Academic Publishers Mitretek 1999 Assessment of ACWA Technologies and Equipment for Treatment of Non-Stockpile Wastes and Chemical Materiel Technical Report MTR 1999-32V1 McLean, Va. : Mitretek Morgan, E.W. R.A. Renne B. McVeety R. Johnson R.L. Phelps F-S. Yin J.T. Pierce J. Blessing P.W. Mellick E.J. Olajos and H. Salem 1997 Head-Only Inhalation Toxicity Study (LC50) of Chemical Agent Identification Sets (CAIS) Red Process Waste Streams in Rats

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Disposal of Neutralent Wastes ERDEC-CR-239 Aberdeen Proving Ground, Md. : Edgewood Research Development and Engineering Center Mulholland, K.L. and J.A. Dyer 1999 Pollution Prevention: Methodology, Technologies, and Practices New York American Institute of Chemicai Engineers NRC (National Research Council) 1994 Recommendations for the Disposal of Chemical Agents and Munitions Committee on Review and Evaluation of the Army Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program, Board on Army Science and Technology Washington, D.C. : National Academy Press NRC 1996a Review and Evaluation of Alternative Chemical Disposal Technologies Panel on Review and Evaluation of Alternative Disposal Technologies, Board on Army Science and Technology Washington, D.C. : National Academy Press NRC 1996b Understanding Risk: Informing Decisions in a Democratic Society Committee on Risk Characterization, National Research Council Washington, D.C. : National Academy Press NRC 1997 Risk Assessment and Management at Deseret Chemical Depot and the Tooele Chemical Agent Disposal Facility Committee on Review and Evaluation of the Army Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program, Board on Army Science and Technology Washington, D.C. : National Academy Press NRC 1998a Health Effects of Waste Incineration Committee on Toxicology, Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology Washington, D.C. : National Academy Press NRC 1998b Using Supercritical Water Oxidation to Treat Hydrolysate from VX Neutralization Committee on Review and Evaluation of the Army Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program, Board on Army Science and Technology Washington, D.C. : National Academy Press NRC 1999a Disposal of Chemical Agent Identification Sets Committee on Review and Evaluation of the Army Non-Stockpile Chemical Materiel Disposal Program, Board on Army Science and Technology Washington, D.C. : National Academy Press NRC 1999b Review and Evaluation of Alternative Technologies for Demilitarization of Assembled Chemical Weapons Committee on Review and Evaluation of Alternative Technologies for Demilitarization of Assembled Chemical Weapons, Board on Army Science and Technology Washington, D.C. : National Academy Press NRC 2000a Evaluation of Demonstration Test Results of Alternative Technologies for Demilitarization of Assembled Chemical Weapons: A Supplemental Review Committee on Review and Evaluation of Alternative Technologies for Demilitarization of Assembled Chemical Weapons, Board on Army Science and Technology Washington, D.C. : National Academy Press NRC 2000b Integrated Design of Alternative Technologies for Bulk-Only Chemical Agent Disposal Facilities Committee on Review and Evaluation of the Army Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program, Board on Army Science and Technology Washington, D.C. : National Academy Press NSCWCC (Non-Stockpile Chemical Weapons Citizens Coalition) 2000 Assessment of Alternative Technologies by the Non-Stockpile Chemical Weapons Citizens Coalition Working Group Briefing by an NSCWCC panel to the Committee on Review and Evaluation of the Army Non-Stockpile Chemical Materiel Disposal Program, National Research Council, Washington, D.C., February 23, 2000 Olajos, E.J. K.P. Cameron R.A. Way J.H. Manthei J.H. Heitkamp D.M. Bona and S.A. Thomson 1996 Acute Dermal Toxicity Evaluation of Product Solutions Resulting from the Chemical Neutralization of HD, GB, and VX via Monoethanolamine (MEA) ERDEC-TR-434 Aberdeen Proving Ground, Md. : Edgewood Research Development and Engineering Center Olajos, E.J. H. Salem and J.K. Gieseking 1997 Department of Transportation, Dermal Toxicity Evaluation of Product Solutions Resulting from the Chemical Neutralization of HD, GB, and VX via Monoethanolamine (MEA) ERDEC-SP-002 Aberdeen Proving Ground, Md. : Edgewood Research Development and Engineering Center PMCD (program Manager for Chemical Disposal) 1999 Chemical Stockpile Program, Questions and Answers Available on line at URL: www.pmcd.apgea.army.mil/text/CSDP/IP/brochures/Q&A/index.html . Renn, O. T. Webler and P. Wiedemann 1995 Fairness and Competence in Citizen Participation: Evaluating Models for Environmental Discourse Dordrecht, The Netherlands : Kluwer Academic Publishers Soilleaux, R. 1998 Hydrolysis and Oxidation Process Effluents of Some Chemical Warfare Agents and Possible Secondary Treatments Pp. 29–31 in Effluents from Alternative Demilitarization Technologies Vol. 22 NATO ASI Series. Boston, Mass. : Kluwer Academic Publishers Stone & Webster 2000 Evaluation of Neutralent Post-Treatment Technologies for the Non-Stockpile Chemical Materiel Program Prepared by the Technology Evaluation Panel for the U.S. Army Program Manager for Chemical Demilitarization. September 18, 2000 Boston, MA : Stone & Webster Engineering Corporation U.S. Army 1994a U.S. Army's Alternative Demilitarization Technology Report to Congress 11 April 1994 Aberdeen Proving Ground, Md. : U.S. Army Program Manager for Chemical Demilitarization U.S. Army 1994b Detailed Program Plan and Methodology for Developing Alternative Technologies for Chemical Demilitarization 26 April 1995 Aberdeen Proving Ground, Md. : Alternative Technology Branch, U.S. Army U.S. Army 1996 Survey and Analysis Report 2nd ed. Aberdeen, Md. Project Manager for Non-Stockpile Chemical Materiel U.S. Army 1999a Draft Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement Vol. 1 Transportable Treatment Systems for Non-Stockpile Chemical Warfare Materiel Aberdeen Proving Ground, Md. : U.S. Army U.S. Army 1999b Draft Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement Vol. 2 Appendices: Transportable Treatment Systems for Non-Stockpile Chemical Warfare Materiel Abderdeen Proving Ground, Md. : U.S. Army U.S. Army Research Office 1994 Destruction of Military Toxic Waste Presentation at the NATO Advanced Workshop, Naaldwijk, The Netherlands, May 22–27, 1994 Available on line at URL: www.aro.ncren.net . Walsh, W.J. 1990 Making Science, Policy, and Public Perception Compatible: A Legal/Policy Summary, or Do We Want to Clean Up Hazardous Sites or Just Scream and Yell at Each Other Pp. 206-249 in Ground Water and Soil Contamination Remediation: Toward Compatible Science, Policy, and Public Perception Report on a Colloquium Sponsored by the Water, Science and Technology Board Washington, D.C. : National Academy Press Weddle, B. 1993 Letter from Bruce Weddle, Acting Director, EPA Office of Solid Waste, to Ethan Ware, Ogletree, Deakins, Nash, Smoak, & Stewart, November 1, 1993 Williams, M. 1987a Letter from Marcia Williams, Director, EPA Office of Solid Waste, to Bernard Cox, Hazardous Waste Branch, Alabama DEM, July 1, 1987 Available on line at URL: http://yosemite.epa.gov/osw/rcra.nsf Williams, M. 1987b Letter from Marcia Williams, Director, EPA Office of Solid Waste, to K. Allford, NL Industries, Inc., March 25, 1987 Available on line at URL: http://yosemite.epa.gov/osw/rcra.nsf Wynne, B. 1996 May the Sheep Safely Graze? A Reflexive View of the Expert-Lay Knowledge Divide Pp. 44–83 in Risk, Environment, and Modernity: Towards a New Ecology edited by S. Lash B. Szerszynski and B. Wynne London : Sage Publications Ltd. Yang, Y-C 1995 Chemical reactions for neutralizing chemical warfare agents Chemistry and Industry 9 : 334–337 Yang, Y-C 1999 Chemical detoxification of nerve agent VX Accounts of Chemical Research 32(2) : 109–115

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