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SMALL BUSINESS INNOVATION RESEARCH TO SUPPORT AGING AIRCRAFT: Priority Technical Areas and Process Improvements SMALL BUSINESS INNOVATION RESEARCH TO SUPPORT AGING AIRCRAFT Priority Technical Areas and Process Improvements Committee on Small Business Innovation Research to Support Aging Aircraft National Materials Advisory Board Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences National Research Council Publication NMAB-497 NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C.
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SMALL BUSINESS INNOVATION RESEARCH TO SUPPORT AGING AIRCRAFT: Priority Technical Areas and Process Improvements National Academy Press 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W. Washington, DC 20418 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This project was conducted under a contract with the U.S. Department of Defense. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project. Copies available in limited supply from: National Materials Advisory Board National Research Council 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W. Washington, DC 20418 202-334-3505 firstname.lastname@example.org Copyright 2001 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America
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SMALL BUSINESS INNOVATION RESEARCH TO SUPPORT AGING AIRCRAFT: Priority Technical Areas and Process Improvements THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES Advisers to the Nation on Science, Engineering, and Medicine National Academy of Sciences National Academy of Engineering Institute of Medicine National Research Council The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. William A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an advisor to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce Alberts and Dr. William A. Wulf are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council.
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SMALL BUSINESS INNOVATION RESEARCH TO SUPPORT AGING AIRCRAFT: Priority Technical Areas and Process Improvements This page in the original is blank.
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SMALL BUSINESS INNOVATION RESEARCH TO SUPPORT AGING AIRCRAFT: Priority Technical Areas and Process Improvements COMMITTEE ON SMALL BUSINESS INNOVATION RESEARCH TO SUPPORT AGING AIRCRAFT HARRY A. LIPSITT, chair, Wright State University (emeritus), Dayton, Ohio EARL H. DOWELL, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina THOMAS N. FARRIS, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana MARY C. JUHAS, Ohio State University, Columbus MERRILL L. MINGES, Universal Technology Corporation, Dayton, Ohio KESH NARAYANAN, National Science Foundation, Arlington, Virginia RICHARD E. PINCKERT, The Boeing Company, Berkeley, Missouri MICHAEL ROONEY, Johns Hopkins University, Laurel, Maryland T.S. SUDARSHAN, Materials Modification, Inc., Fairfax, Virginia NRC Staff ARUL MOZHI, Acting Director and Senior Program Officer PAT A. WILLIAMS, Administrative Assistant Government Liaisons DANIEL J. BREWER, Air Force Research Laboratory, Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio BLAISE J. DURANTE, U.S. Air Force, Washington, D.C. MICHAEL L. ZEIGLER, Air Force Research Laboratory, Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio
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SMALL BUSINESS INNOVATION RESEARCH TO SUPPORT AGING AIRCRAFT: Priority Technical Areas and Process Improvements NATIONAL MATERIALS ADVISORY BOARD EDGAR A. STARKE, chair, University of Virginia, Charlottesville EDWARD C. DOWLING, Cleveland Cliffs, Inc., Cleveland, Ohio THOMAS EAGAR, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge HAMISH L. FRASER, Ohio State University, Columbus ALASTAIR M. GLASS, Bell Laboratories, Lucent Technologies, Murray Hill, New Jersey MARTIN E. GLICKSMAN, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York JOHN A. S. GREEN, Aluminum Association, Inc., Washington, D.C. THOMAS S. HARTWICK, TRW, Redmond, Washington ALLAN J. JACOBSON, University of Houston, Houston, Texas SYLVIA M. JOHNSON, NASA-Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California FRANK KARASZ, University of Massachusetts, Amherst SHEILA F. KIA, General Motors Research and Development Center, Warren, Michigan HARRY A. LIPSITT, Wright State University (emeritus), Dayton, Ohio ALAN G. MILLER, Boeing Commercial Airplane Group, Seattle, Washington ROBERT C. PFAHL, JR., Motorola, Schaumburg, Illinois JULIA PHILLIPS, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico HENRY J. RACK, Clemson University, Clemson, South Carolina KENNETH L. REIFSNIDER, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg T.S. SUDARSHAN, Materials Modification, Inc., Fairfax, Virginia JULIA WEERTMAN, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois NRC Staff ARUL MOZHI, Acting Director
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SMALL BUSINESS INNOVATION RESEARCH TO SUPPORT AGING AIRCRAFT: Priority Technical Areas and Process Improvements Preface The Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program was created in 1982 by the Small Business Innovation Development Act. The program is designed to stimulate technology innovation by small businesses, provide technical and scientific solutions to challenging problems, and encourage the marketing of the resulting new technologies in the private sector. Federal agencies with more than $100 million in extramural research and development (R&D) are required to allocate 2.5 percent of their research budgets to small businesses. Such funds from all federal agencies amounted to approximately $1.1 billion in fiscal year 1998. The U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) has the largest single SBIR program ($540 million), approximately 40 percent of which comes through Air Force channels. Determining how to allocate these funds to the myriad Air Force agencies requesting funding is a difficult challenge. Historically, the Air Force SBIR program has been defined largely by the R&D directorates of the Air Force Research Laboratory. Many of the resulting programs were focused on solving important problems identified by customers within the Air Force, but these customers were not consistently brought into the SBIR allocation process even though they contributed resources to the Air Force SBIR pool. More customer participation would ensure not only that important problems are being addressed, but also that effective processes are put in place to transition new technologies. The need for more active customer participation and effective technology transition was recognized at the DOD level to be an important SBIR program issue across all the services and defense agencies. Formal direction to remedy this situation DOD-wide was issued in 1999 by the DOD undersecretary of defense for acquisition and technology. In response to this guidance, the Air Force significantly revised its SBIR processes, bringing in all the contributing customers, including the aging aircraft system program offices and Air Force air logistics centers, as the direct sustainment community stakeholders. Another recent development is the recognition that aging aircraft will remain the backbone of the operational force for many years to come. Although some aircraft will be retired and replaced with new aircraft, most replacements are several years away. For many older aircraft, no replacements are planned, and some are expected to remain in service for another 25 years or more. Recognizing the challenges of managing and operating an aging fleet, the Air Force, in 1997, sponsored a National Research Council (NRC) study under the auspices of the National Materials Advisory Board (NMAB), Aging of U.S. Air Force Aircraft. At about the same time, a new Aging Aircraft Program (funded by
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SMALL BUSINESS INNOVATION RESEARCH TO SUPPORT AGING AIRCRAFT: Priority Technical Areas and Process Improvements Program Element 6.5, or Engineering and Manufacturing Development) was launched at the Aeronautical Systems Center at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio. The program was meant to complement the ongoing aging aircraft program (funded by Program Element 6.2, or R&D) at the Air Force Research Laboratory by providing funding for technology transition for technologies developed at the laboratory and elsewhere. At the request of Blaise Durante, deputy assistant secretary, management policy and program integration, Office of the Assistant Secretary of the Air Force for Acquisition, the NRC formed the Committee on Small Business Innovation Research to Support Aging Aircraft to conduct a second study. The main purpose of the study was to determine how SBIR programs could be used to improve the development and implementation of technologies associated with the cost-effective maintenance and operation of aging aircraft. The committee did not examine uses of SBIR funds for technologies other than for aging aircraft. Committee members were chosen for their extensive knowledge and understanding of mechanical, chemical, and metallurgical processes, inspection and repair, management and implementation of the SBIR program, and the role of small business in technology development and implementation. The four committee meetings included briefing sessions to review the national goals of the SBIR program and to review existing aging aircraft programs and the SBIR process. The committee also attended and participated in the 2000 Aging Aircraft Conference held in St. Louis, Missouri. Finally, the committee met at the NRC Study Center in Woods Hole, Massachusetts, to develop the conclusions and recommendations presented here and to compile the rough draft of this report. The chair wishes to thank the committee members for their enthusiasm, dedication, and service, the participants for their hard work, insight, excellent presentations, and stimulating discussions, and the staff of the National Materials Advisory Board, especially Arul Mozhi, study director, and Pat Williams and Judy Estep, senior project assistants, for their coordination, cooperation, and assistance throughout the entire process, including the editing and publication of this report. The chair also wishes to recognize the outstanding liaison services of Dan Brewer and Mike Zeigler of the Aging Aircraft Technologies Office, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base. Mr. Brewer's coordination of presentations and information from the Air Force customer groups was invaluable. Comments and suggestions can be sent via e-mail to NMAB@nas.edu or by fax to (202) 334-3718. Harry A. Lipsitt, chair Committee on Small Business Innovation Research to Support Aging Aircraft
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SMALL BUSINESS INNOVATION RESEARCH TO SUPPORT AGING AIRCRAFT: Priority Technical Areas and Process Improvements Acknowledgments The Committee on Small Business Innovation Research to Support Aging Aircraft thanks the participants in the study meetings, the principal means of gathering data for this study. The information from and insights of the participants were invaluable. Presenters included Blaise Durante, Ed Davidson, Maj. Karl Hart, Jack Lincoln, Lt. Andrew Lofthouse, Lt. Col. Vishu Nevrekar, Dave Uhrig, U.S. Air Force; Dan Brewer, Charlie Buynak, Marvin Gale, Steve Guifoos, Capt. Mike Myers, Clare Paul, Deb Peller, Scott Theibert, Madie Tillman, U.S. Air Force Research Laboratory; Thomas Munns, ARINC; Ron Lofaro, Federal Aviation Administration; and Dale Moore, U.S. Navy. The committee is particularly grateful to Blaise Durante, Dan Brewer, and Michael Zeigler for their support. This report has been reviewed by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the NRC's Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the authors and the NRC in making the published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their participation in the review of this report: James Chern, NASA-Goddard Space Flight Center; David R. Clarke, University of California-Santa Barbara; Carl Handsy, U.S. Army Tank Automotive and Armaments Command; James Intrater, Integer Engineering Corporation; Alan Miller, Boeing Commercial Airplane Group; Thomas Munns, ARINC; and Thomas Savell, Dynamic Analysis and Testing Associates. While the individuals listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Gerald Dinneen, Honeywell, Inc. (retired), appointed by the NRC's Report Review Committee, who was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of the report rests solely with the authoring committee and the institution.
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