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prenticeship of students to their mentors. These relationships will be prized and preserved, even as the research environment changes in all the ways this Committee has described. The value of personal relationships is likely never to be replaced by digital technologies.


The conduct of research often involves collaboration and teamwork at least in the sense of building on the work of predecessors. In some cases the scope and/or scale of work demands a team approach, often requiring participants with complementary expertise. The word “teamwork” is used here in both a strong and weaker sense. In the strong sense it means tightly coupled intellectual collaboration with others who are on the “same team.” In the sponsored research world, a team may have received joint funding and have mutual self-interest in a successful outcome of the collaboration.

The word is also used in the weaker sense of participating in—giving to and taking from—a specialized research community of common interests. One may be a participant in and a good citizen of one's research community, but at the same time compete for recognition and support. An example of this kind of teamwork is the increasing expectation that experimenters contribute data to a common electronic repository or archive. These practices require more explicit articulation and agreement about rules for data sharing and rights of usage. In some fields, new covenants and relationships of trust are being negotiated.

In the digital age, researchers find it increasingly a possibility—and thus an obligation—to maintain awareness of other research in one's field and to consider one's work within the context of others' work, wherever these researchers are geographically located. Researchers can now follow the work in their specialization on a day-by-day basis, for example through Web sites. Through digital technology, researchers are increasing their evaluation not only relative to their home and national institutional peers, but also with respect to their peers around the world.

Technology may also be exacerbating the age-old tension between cooperation and competition in research. On the one hand, there is infrastructure and mutual gain through contributing data, processes, and findings to the common good, and this can be done at nearly instantaneous rates. On the other hand,

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