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Status of the Dosimetry for the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (DS86) Appendix A The RERF Dosimetry Measurements Database and Data Collection for the Dosimetry Reassessment The RERF Dosimetry Measurements Database attempts to compile a detailed list of analytically useful data on measurements of thermoluminescence and neutron activation in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The database is intended to contain an entry for every such measurement that has been made and documented. The database is prepared in Access™ and has custom screens for data entry and checking that are programmed in Visual Basic™, as shown in Figures A-1 and A-2. Source documents for the data are detailed in a table of references (Table A-2). Chapters and appendixes of the DS86 final report are listed separately in the table of references (Table A-2). In addition to the DS86 final report, the database includes listings for 42 published papers and various other reports, proceedings, and notes from meetings. In addition to the table of references, there are also linked tables of samples, subsamples, and measurements in the database. Data are entered exactly as they appear in source documents, sometimes with extensive annotation in the notes field to aid in interpretation. RERF maintains and updates the database by vetting the existing entries and adding new data. A summary cross-tabulation of measured samples in the database is given in Table A-1 for samples that fit the “surface, line of sight” criterion discussed in Appendix B. The database also contains results for a number of other samples, notably core samples that yield information at various depths in rock or concrete. Initially, efforts were made to maximize the information in the database from available source documents. RERF supported and participated in the efforts of the Committee on Dosimetry for the RERF to obtain detailed information directly from investigators for the purpose of a comprehensive uncertainty analysis. In November 1998, Mr. Lowder and Dr. Takashi Maruyama, accompanied by Dr. Cullings, visited
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Status of the Dosimetry for the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (DS86) FIGURE A-1 Sample data-entry screen of RERF dosimetry measurement database. the laboratories at Hiroshima University Geniken (Dr. Hoshi), Hiroshima University Saijou Campus (Dr. Shizuma), Kanazawa University (Dr. Nakanishi), and N.I.R.S. at Chiba near Tokyo (Maruyama and Kumamoto) for meetings, tours, and consultations. They also met with Dr. Fujita and Mr. Watanabe, of RERF, who have extensive personal knowledge and records of sample collection, storage, and distribution. In December 1998, a detailed questionnaire prepared by Mr. Lowder, which is included at the end of this appendix, was sent to all investigators who had made measurements of interest for the uncertainty analysis. Written responses were received only from Dr. Hamada and Dr. Kato. In December 1999, Dr. Maruyama and Dr. Cullings again visited the laboratory of Dr. Nakanishi with a detailed list of requested information.
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Status of the Dosimetry for the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (DS86) FIGURE A-2 Measurements data-entry screen of RERF dosimetry measurement database. Dr. Cullings has exchanged letters and materials with Dr. Shizuma. In April 2000, Dr. Cullings wrote letters to Dr. Nakanishi, Dr. Iimoto, Dr. Hamada, Dr. Shimazaki (Dr. Okumura’s group in Nagasaki) and Dr. Shizuma, requesting spectra and additional detailed information on background issues. Responses were received from Dr. Iimoto, Dr. Kimura (Dr. Hamada’s group), and Dr. Shizuma. In September 2000, Dr. Cullings attended a meeting of the Hiroshima dosimetry group and made a brief presentation regarding environmental background samples and questions concerning the accuracy of the trapezoidal approximation of background versus peak counts at low sample radioactivity levels. The information obtained from all those inquiries has been archived at RERF and has been used to augment and correct the database as appropriate.
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Status of the Dosimetry for the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (DS86) TABLE A-1 Measured Locations in the RERF Databasea (by Site Name, Ground Range in m, and Azimuth in Degree) Hiroshima 32P (measured in 1945) ? 76 242 ? 660 ? ? 178 4 ? 682 75 ? 305 79 ? 705 ? ? 331 ? ? 721 296 ? 331 ? ? 968 ? ? 358 311 ? 1025 299 ? 417 56 ? 1080 ? ? 433 132 ? 1305 ? ? 470 ? Hiroshima 36Cl Saikouji 94 265 Hiroshima University E Buildingb 1354 165 Motoyasu Bridge 102 245 Aioi Bridgeb 300 318 Teishin Hospital (Communications Hosp.) 1368 44 Fukoku Seimei Buildingb 317 131 Gokoku Shrineb 398 351 Hiroshima University Radioisotope Bldgb 1427 163 Kirin Beer Hallb 664 112 Chugoku Electric Power Co. 676 175 Hiroshima University Seifu Dormitoryb 1427 176 Sinkojib 870 325 Old NHK Buildingb 988 83 Red Cross Hospital North Bldgb 1469 182 Hiroshima City Hall 1000 177 Ganjiojib 1029 32 Red Cross Hospitalb 1501 180 Tokueijib 1140 108 Hiroshima Postal Savings Bureau 1606 177 Jyunkyojib 1217 122 Hosenjib 1225 334 Hiroshima Bank of Creditb 1703 350 Hiroshima University Elementary Schoolb 1269 167 Hiroshima Commercial High Schoolb 2863 222 Hiroshima 60Co Shima Hospital 0 0 Sentry Box 640 131 Hiroshima Post Office 55 313 Kirin Beer Hall 670 113 Saikou-ji 94 302 Chugoku Electric Power Co. 687 174 Motoyasu Bridge 128 248 Kodokan 720 274 Atomic-Bomb Dome 163 ~308? Water Trough 793 351 Monument of victory 213 50 Hiroshima City Hall 1014 180 Sumitomo Bank 250 ? Powder Magazine 1197 11 Yasuda Seimei Building 257 116 Yokogawa Bridge 1295 343 Hiroshima Bank 269 206 Yokogawa Bridge 1295 343 Aioi Bridge 300 325 Red Cross Hospital 1481 180 Fukoku Seimei Building 331 146 Red Cross Hospital 1484 180 Honkawa Primary School 373 297 Hiroshima Bank of Credit 1703 350 Fukuromachi Primary School 441 ?
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Status of the Dosimetry for the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (DS86) Hiroshima 152Eu Shima Hospital 0 0 Shirakami Shrine G1 478 163 Sei Hospital 55 334 Naka Denwa-Kyoku (Telephone Ofc) 529 131 Hiroshima Post Office 55 313 Saikou-ji 94 302 Honkawa stone lantern (gangi) 531 250 Motoyasu Bridge, Pillar 2 101 249 Saikou-ji, grave 107 265 Seiju-ji 546 305 Daiichi Bank 129 118 Kyoden-ji 548 272 Motoyasu Bridge Pillar 1 132 248 Sanin Godo Bank 618 96 Chiyoda Seimei Bldg 132 84 Kakomachi stone wall 629 232 Atomic-Bomb Dome 137 308 Sorazaya Shrine 653 326 Motoyasu Bridge, Railing 146 243 Myocho-ji 654 288 Atomic-Bomb Dome 150 ~308 Chugoku Electric Power Co. 655 174 Atomic-Bomb Dome 161 307 Akisaya-cho 675 35 Nihon Seimei Bldg 163 147 Hiroshima Castle 694 32 Atomic-Bomb Dome 165 ~308 Kawaramachi stone wall 714 238 Atomic-Bomb Dome 168 ~308 Chugoku Electric Power Co. 720 174? Atomic-Bomb Dome 173 ~308 Kodo Primary School 720 274 Banker’s Association 178 155 Choukaku-ji 849 76 Rest House 189 ~90 Tamino’s House 875 125 Monument of victory 213 50 Hiroshima Prefectural Office 881 217 Sensho-ji 229 148 Honkei-ji 893 186 Hiroshima Bank (Geibi Bank) 250 89 Enryu-ji 912 0 Yorozuyo Bridge stone wall 924 209 Hiroshima Bank 250 89 Shingyo-ji 927 329 Yasuda Seimei Bldg 253 116 Teramachi stone wall 949 334 Sumitomo Bank 255 101 Hiroshima Radio Station 988 83 Aioi Bridge P1 258 318 Hiroshima City Hall 1017 181 Daido Seimei Bldg 269 87 Tenma bashib 1029 275 Jisen-ji 272 266 Kozen-ji 1163 123 Fukoku Seimei Bldg 317 146 Iwamiya-cho 1197 96 Honkawa stone wall 344 261 Hiroshima University 1255 ~165 Gogoku Shrine, Lantern 344 351 Hiroshima University 1274 ~165 Honkawa Primary School 359 286 Hiroshima University 1298 ~165 Gokoku Shrine, Marble 377 347 Sumiyoshi shrineb 1307 213 Gokoku Shrine, Guarding Lion 381 349 Hiroshima University 1328 ~165 Honkawa Primary School 389 360 Hiroshima University, Primary School 1335 166 Gokoku Shrine 398 351 Sanyo Memorial Hall 410 150 Kyo Bridge, Railing 1357 91 Motomachi Stone Wall 1 420 336 Teishin Hospital (Communications Hospital) 1370 44 Seigen-ji 427 141 Honkawa Bridge stone wall 434 261 Kannon bashib 1618 237 Geibi Bank, Tsukamoto Branch 465 261 Hiroshima Commercial High Schoolb 2863 222
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Status of the Dosimetry for the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (DS86) Hiroshima 63Ni Atomic-Bomb Dome 163 ~308? Hiroshima University Radioisotope Bldgb 1461 163 Bank of Japanb 367 153 Soy Sauce Breweryb 948 90 Sumitomo Bankb 1880 88 City Hallb 1013 180 Univ. Elementary Schoolb 1304 167 Hiroshima TLD Shima Hospital ? 14 346 HUPS 1397 166 Motoyasu bashi ? 113 258 HUPS 1401 167 ? 188 330 HUPS 1422 166 ? 194 50 HUPS 1425 167 “Zaimoku-cho, Dempuku-ji” 400 SW HUPS 1426 165 “Zaimoku-cho, Seigan-ji” 420 SW HUFS 1428 167 “Zaimoku-cho, ?” 430 SW HUFS 1428 166 ? 460 117 HUFS 1433 167 Naka Telephone Office 507 129 HUFS 1449 165 Naka Telephone Office 523 132 HUFS 1450 167 Sanin Bank 621 95 HUFS 1451 165 ? 623 89 Red Cross Hospital 1452 206 Choguku Electric Co. 665 174 Red Cross Hospital 1452 181 Choguku Electric Co. 692 175 HUFS 1457 167 ? 715 92 HUFS 1459 166 “Ninomaru, Hiroshima Castle” 750 NNE HUFS 1460 166 HUFS 1461 167 Nishishin-machi 800 W HU Radioisotope Bldg. 1462 163 “Nishishin-machi, koen-ji” 960 NNW Red Cross Hospital 1501 180 “Nishishin-machi, Shozen-ji” 970 NNW Postal Savings Bureau 1591 177 Chokin-kyoku (Postal Savings) 1613 178 “Honmaru, Hiroshima Castle” 980 NNE Postal Savings Bureau 1604 178 Nobori-cho (Japanese house) 1131 85 Postal Savings Bureau 1605 177 Chokin Kyoku (Postal Savings) 1613 178 HUPS 1271 167 HUPS 1282 168 Postal Savings Bureau 1613 177 HUPS 1298 167 Postal Savings Bureau 1631 176 HUPS 1316 167 Japan Elec. Meters Insp. Corp. 1793 356 HUPS 1338 166 HUFS-I 1338 168 “Meisen-ji” “Oni-gawara” 1909 107 HUFS 1377 165 HUT (HUFE) 2051 178 HUS 1378 168 “Hiramoto” “Oni-gawara” 2053 253 HUFS 1387 167 HUFE 2054 180 HUFS 1388 166 Kirihara house 2453 287 HUFS-E 1388 169 Ryomatsu-sho (Provisions Depot) 3133 168 HUFS 1393 166
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Status of the Dosimetry for the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (DS86) Nagasaki 152Eu Nagasaki 36Cl Nagasaki University Fuchi Middle School 1156 203 Hospital 650 144 Konpira-san Anti-aircraft Batteryb 1580 127 Mitsubisihi Steel 1075 181 Nagasaki 60Co ? 18 ? ? 353 ? ? 39 ? ? 460 ? ? 63 ? ? 472 ? ? 82 ? Nagasaki Medical School Building 520 125 ? 92 ? ? 93 ? Shiroyama Schoolb 540 ? 96 ? ? 561 ? ? 118 ? Nagasaki Medical School Building 590 12 ? 249 ? Takatani Houseb 290 ? Nagasaki University Hospitalb 653 144 ? 307 ? ? 330 ? Motoki Bridgeb 780 N ? 343 ? Mitsubishi Steelb 935 S ? 347 ? COMM SCHOOL 1030 ~300? ? 19 ? N5 427 ? Shimono-kawa 20 NNE or ESE or S ? 432 ? ? 40 ? ? 435 ? Shimono-kawa 48 NNE or ESE or S ? 457 ? ? 62 ? Urakami Churchb 465 60 Shimono-kawa 80 NNE or ESE or S ? 474 ? ? 80 ? ? 523 ? Shimono-kawa 93 NNE or ESE or S N6 528 ? ? 93 ? N7 555 ? ? 94 ? ? 560 ? ? 96 ? ? 590 ? Shimono-kawa 100 NNE or ESE or S ? 591 ? N1 100 ? ? 628 ? ? 109 ? ? 635 ? Shimono-kawa 110 NNE or ESE or S ? 641 ? ? 115 ? N8 645 ? N2 226 ? Gokoku shrine 651 303 ? 247 ? Nagasaki University Hospitalb 653 144 Urakami-gawa 250 WSW Urakami-gawa 255 WSW ? 668 ? Urakami-gawa 293 WSW ? 682 Urakami-gawa 300 WSW Nanzan schoolb 704 22 ? 308 WSW ? 710 ? Yana bashib 311 296 ? 751 ? ? 312 ? ? 776 ?
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Status of the Dosimetry for the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (DS86) Nagasaki 152Eu ? 313 ? ? 782 ? ? 329 ? ? 794 ? ? 342 ? Shimoda houseb 812 149 ? 346 ? ? 848 ? ? 349 ? N9 871 ? ? 352 ? Prefectural gymnasiumb 871 180 N3 362 ? ? 916 ? N4 379 ? ? 934 ? ? 389 ? St. Maria schoolb 952 155 Anakoboji Temple 1020 ESE Sakamoto-chob 1039 153 Ide residence 1060 W Maruo chob 2850 186 Nagasaki TLD ? 95 ? ? 970 ? Matsuyama-cho 100 ENE Uragami-cho 980 N Oka-machi 230 NW ? 1020 ? Yamazoto-cho 330 NE Sakamoto Cho Cemetery 1039 153 Shiroyama Elementary School 350 W ? 1046 ? Shiroyama-cho 400 W ? 1066 154 ? 520 ? Ceramic (Nishimachi) 1075 3 Urakami 521 57 ? 1173 ? Shiroyama-cho 600 SW Zenza 1426 168 ? 635 ? ? 1427 ? Ueno-cho 650 NE Ieno wall 1432 355 Nagasaki University Hospital 653 178 Nagasaki University Hospital Morgue 1435 167 Brazier (Shiroyama) 730 276 Shiroyama-cho 740 NE Ieno-cho roof 1564 360 Sakamoto-cho 760 SE Yamada Oil Warehouse 2043 176 ? 836 ? Inasa 2049 175 ? 836 ? Inasa 2051 175 ? 860 ? Inasa 2062 176 ? 875 ? Chikugo 2328 156 ? 935 ? aAs of April 10, 2001. Some of the indicated sites have measurements on multiple samples or cores for depth profiles. Measurements lacking precise azimuthal information are not shown in the maps (Plates 1 and 2). Measurements of 154Eu and 41Ca are not included in the table, as they currently exist at only one or two locations. “HU”=Hiroshima University. bMeasurement not yet published.
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Status of the Dosimetry for the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (DS86) TABLE A-2 References in the RERF Dosimetry Measurements Database RefID First Author Year Title Journal 1 Egbert 1995 Computerized data acquisition and retrieval system for archival of Hiroshima and Nagasaki A-bomb activation measurements and calculations Book (Science Applications International Corporation) 2 Gritzner 1987 Sulfur activation at Hiroshima DS86 Vol. 2:283–292 3 Hasai 1987 152Eu depth profile of a stone bridge pillar exposed to the Hiroshima atomic bomb: 152Eu activities for analysis of the neutron spectrum Health Phys. 53:227–239 4 Kato 1990 Gamma-ray measurement of 152Eu produced by neutrons from the Hiroshima atomic bomb and evaluation of neutron fluence Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 29:1546–1549 5 Kato 1990 Accelerator mass spectrometry of 36Cl produced by neutrons from the Hiroshima bomb Int. J.Radiat. Biol. 58:661–672 6 Kaul 1987 Calculation of dose in quartz for comparison with thermoluminescence dosimetry measurements DS86 Vol. 2:204–241 (Appendix 11 to Chapter 4) 7 Kerr 1983 Tissue kerma vs distance relationships for initial nuclear radiation from the atomic bombs Hiroshima and Nagasaki First 1983 RERF Workshop: 57–103 8 Kerr 1990 Activation of cobalt by neutrons from the hiroshima bomb ORNL 6590 9 Milton 1968 Tentative 1965 radiation dose estimation for atomic bomb survivors ABCC Technical Report 1–68 10 Nakanishi 1987 Residual neutron-induced radioactivities in samples exposed in Hiroshima DS86 Vol. 2:310–319 11 Nakanishi 1991 Residual neutron-induced radionuclides in samples exposed to the nuclear explosion over Hiroshima: Comparison of the measured values with the calculated values J.Radiat. Res. S:69–82 12 Nakanishi 1993 Calculated and measured 152Eu activity in roof tiles exposed to atomic bomb radiation in Nagasaki (in Japanese) 1992 research report on effects of the atomic bombs
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Status of the Dosimetry for the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (DS86) RefID First Author Year Title Journal 13 Okumura 1997 Reassessment of Atomic bomb neutron doses (in Japanese) FY 1996 Report of Research Group on Atomic Bomb Related Symptoms 14 Roesch 1987 Book (US-Japan joint reassessment of atomic bomb radiation dosimetry in Hiroshima and Nagasaki) 15 Shibata 1994 A method to estimate the fast-neutron fluence for the Hiroshima atomic bomb J.Phys. Soc. Jpn. 63:3546–3547 16 Shizuma 1992 Specific activities of 60Co and 152Eu in samples collected from the atomic-bomb dome in Hiroshima J.Radiat. Res. 33:151–162 17 Shizuma 1992 Low-background shielding of Ge detectors for the measurement of residual 152Eu radioactivity induced by neutrons from the Hiroshima atomic bomb Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B66:459–464 18 Shizuma 1993 Residual 152Eu and 60Co activities induced by neutrons from the Hiroshima atomic bomb Health Phys. 65:272–282 19 Shizuma 1997 Notes from October 1997 meeting 20 Straume 1992 Neutron discrepancies in the DS86 Hiroshima dosimetry system Health Phys. 63:421–426 21 Straume 1994 Neutrons confirmed in Nagasaki and at the army pulsed radiation facility: Implications for Hiroshima Radiat. Res. 138:193–200 22 Tatsumi-Miyajima, J 1991 Physical dosimetry at Nagasaki— 152Eu of stone embankment and electron spin resonance of teeth from atomic bomb survivors J.Radiat. Res. Suppl.: 83–98 23 Hashizume 1967 Estimation of the air dose from the atomic bombs in Hiroshima and Nagasaki Health Phys. 13:149–161 24 Hashizume 1983 Present plans for dose reassessment experiments by the Japanese Second 1983 RERF Workshop: 7–12 25 Nakanishi 1983 152Eu in samples exposed to the nuclear explosions at Hiroshima and Nagasaki Nature 302:132–134
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Status of the Dosimetry for the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (DS86) RefID First Author Year Title Journal 26 Maruyama 1987 Comments on 60Co measurements DS86 Vol. 2:335–339 (Appendix 16 to Chapter 5) 27 Sakanoue 1987 In situ measurement and depth profile of residual 152Eu activity induced by neutrons from the atomic bomb in Hiroshima DS86 Vol. 2:261–265 (Appendix 7 to Chapter 5) 28 Hoshi 1989 152Eu activity induced by Hiroshima atomic bomb neutrons: Comparison with the 32P, 60Co, and 152Eu activities in dosimetry system 1986 Health Phys. 57:831–837 29 Kimura 1990 Determination of specific activity of cobalt (60Co/Co) in steel samples exposed to the atomic bomb in Hiroshima J.Radiat. Res. 31:207–213 30 Saito 1987 Radiochemical estimation of neutron fluence of Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bombs DS86 Vol. 2:249–251 (Appendix 4 to Chapter 5) 31 Hoshi 1987 Data on neutrons in Hiroshima DS86 Vol. 2:252–255 (Appendix 5 to Chapter 5) 32 Straume 1995 Personal communication (SAIC DB) Personal communication (SAIC DB) 33 Straume 1997 ABCC-RERF 50th Anniversary ABCC-RERF 50th Anniversary 34 Hoshi 1985 Distribution of 152Eu in bridge Summary reports of grants in aid for Monbusho 1985 pp 17–19 35 Nakanishi 1986 DS86 (SAIC DB) DS86 (SAIC DB) 36 Nakanishi 1986 86-report (SAIC DB) 86-report (SAIC DB) 38 Egbert 1997 SAIC database SAIC database 39 Hashizume 1967 Estimation of air dose from the atomic bombs, Hiroshima and Nagasaki ABCC TR 6–67 40 Loewe 1981 Revised estimates of neutron and gamma-ray doses at Hiroshima and Nagasaki Germantown Conference Proceedings: 25–51 41 Kerr 1981 Findings of a recent Oak Ridge National Laboratory review of dosimetry for the Japanese atom-bomb survivors Germantown Conference Proceedings: 52–97
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Status of the Dosimetry for the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (DS86) RefID First Author Year Title Journal 86 Nakanishi 1989 152Eu measurements Hawaii meeting notes 87 Ruehm 1990 The neutron spectrum of the Hiroshima A-bomb and DS86 Nuc. Inst. Meth. Phys. Res. pp 557–562 88 Straume 1990 Use of accelerator mass spectrometry in the dosimetry of Hiroshima neutrons Nuc. Inst. Meth. Phys. Res. pp 552–556 89 Shigematsu 1991 Japanese measurements Letter to Bill Ellett 9–9–91 90 Straume 1992 Handout on 36CL Irvine meeting 91 Hoshi 1991 Studies of radioactivity produced by the Hiroshima atomic bomb: 1. Neutron-induced radioactivity measurements for dose evaluation J.Radiat Res. Suppl. 20–31 94 Hoshi 1996 Proceedings of Nagasaki Symposium 50th anniversary pp 175 96 Okajima 1997 Nagasaki Eu measurements 1996 Report to Monbusho 105 Shizuma 1998 Residual 152Eu and 60Co activity induced by atomic bomb neutrons in Nagasaki manuscript 106 Shizuma 1998 Residual 60Co activity in steel samples exposed to the Hiroshima atomic bomb neutrons Health Phys. 75:278–284 107 Nagatomo 1995 Thermoluminescence dosimetry of the Hiroshima atomic-bomb gamma rays between 1.59 km and 1.63 km from the hypocenter Health Phys. 69:556–559 108 Nagatomo 1992 Comparison of the measured gamma ray dose and the DS86 estimate at 2.05 km ground distance in Hiroshima J.Radiat. Res. 33:211–217 109 Ichikawa 1987 Thermoluminescence dosimetry of gamma rays from the Hiroshima atomic bomb at distances of 1.27 to 1.46 kilometers from the hypocenter Health Phys. 52:443–451 110 Uehara 1988 Monte Carlo simulations of doses to tiles irradiated by 60Co and 252Cf simulating atomic bomb gamma-ray fluences Health Phys. 54:249–256
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Status of the Dosimetry for the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (DS86) RefID First Author Year Title Journal 111 Hoshi 1989 Thermoluminescence dosimetry of gamma rays from the Hiroshima atomic bomb at distances of 1.91–2.05 km from the hypocenter Health Phys. 57:1003–1008 112 Haskell 1987 Thermoluminescence measurement of gamma rays—report on University of Utah analyses DS86, Vol. 2:153–169 113 Ichikawa 1966 Thermoluminescence dosimetry of gamma rays from the atomic bombs in Hiroshima and Nagasaki Health Phys. 12:395–405 114 Ichikawa 1987 Thermoluminescence measurement of gamma rays by the quartz inclusion method DS86 Vol. 2:137–144 115 Nagatomo 1988 Thermoluminescence dosimetry of gamma rays from the atomic bomb at Hiroshima using the predose technique Radiat. Res. 113:227–234 116 Nagatomo 1991 Thermoluminescence dosimetry of gamma rays using ceramic samples from Hiroshima and Nagasaki: A comparison with DS86 estimates J.Radiat. Res. 32 (Suppl.): 48–57 118 Maruyama 1987 Thermoluminescence measurements of gamma rays (Chapter 4) DS86 Vol. 1:143–184 119 Roesch 1987 US-Japan joint reassessment of atomic bomb radiation dosimetry in Hiroshima and Nagasaki: final report (Vol. 1) DS86 Vol. 1 120 Roesch 1987 US-Japan joint reassessment of atomic bomb radiation dosimetry in Hiroshima and Nagasaki: final report (Vol. 2) DS86 Vol. 2 121 Maruyama 1987 Reassessment of gamma-ray doses using thermoluminescence measurements DS86 Vol. 2:113–124 (Appendix 1 to Chapter 4) 122 Ichikawa 1987 Thermoluminescence measurement of gamma rays DS86 Vol. 2:125–136 (Appendix 2 to Chapter 4) 123 Ichikawa 1987 Thermoluminescence measurement of gamma rays: quartz inclusion method DS86 Vol. 2:137–144 (Appendix 3 to Chapter 4)
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Status of the Dosimetry for the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (DS86) RefID First Author Year Title Journal 124 Nagatomo 1987 Thermoluminescence measurement of gamma rays by the pre-dose method DS86 Vol. 2:145–148 (Appendix 4 to Chapter 4) 125 Hoshi 1987 Thermoluminescence measurement of gamma rays at about 2000 m from the hypocenter DS86 Vol. 2:149–152 (Appendix 5 to Chapter 4) 126 Haskell 1987 Thermoluminescence dosimetry of atomic bomb gamma rays: University of Utah analyses DS86 Vol. 2:153–169 (Appendix 6 to Chapter 4) 127 Eagleson 1987 Report from the Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute concerning LINAC and 60Co irradiations DS86 Vol. 2:169–170 (Appendix 6a to Chapter 4) 128 Hoffman 1987 Report on calibration and irradiation of samples with the UDM 137Cs beam irradiator at the University of Utah DS86 Vol. 2:170–171 (Appendix 6b to Chapter 4) 129 Bailiff 1987 Thermoluminescence analyses of Hiroshima ceramic tile and Nagasaki brick using the pre-dose and inclusion techniques DS86 Vol. 2:172–183 (Appendix 7 to Chapter 4) 130 Huxtable 1987 Conventional thermoluminescence characteristics of a Hiroshima tile and a Nagasaki brick DS86 Vol. 2:184–189 (Appendix 8 to Chapter 4) 131 Stoneham 1987 Thermoluminescence results on slices from a Hiroshima tile UHFSFT03 DS86 Vol. 2:190–197 (Appendix 9 to Chapter 4) 132 Haskell 1987 Interlaboratory calibration using NBS-irradiated Mg2SiO4:Tb DS86 Vol. 2:198–203 (Appendix 10 to Chapter 4) 134 Thompson 1983 US-Japan joint workshop for reassessment of atomic bomb radiation dosimetry in Hiroshima and Nagasaki First 1983 RERF Workshop 135 (RERF) 1983 Second US-Japan joint workshop for reassessment of atomic bomb radiation dosimetry in Hiroshima and Nagasaki Second 1983 RERF Workshop 136 Ichikawa 1983 Thermoluminescent dating and its application to gamma ray dosimetry First 1983 RERF Workshop: 104–114
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Status of the Dosimetry for the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (DS86) RefID First Author Year Title Journal 137 Hoshi 1983 Thermoluminescent dating and its application to gamma ray dosimetry First 1983 RERF Workshop: 115–121 138 Maruyama 1983 Reassessment of gamma ray dose estimates from thermoluminescent yields in Hiroshima and Nagasaki First 1983 RERF Workshop: 122–137 139 Ichikawa 1983 Measurement of gamma ray dose from the atomic bomb by the quartz inclusion technique Second 1983 RERF Workshop: 30–31 140 Haskell 1983 The use of thermoluminescence analysis for atomic bomb dosimetry: estimating and minimizing total error Second 1983 RERF Workshop: 32–44 141 Maruyama 1983 Preliminary measurements of thermoluminescent yield with samples irradiated indoors Second 1983 RERF Workshop: 45–47 142 Lowder 1983 Rapporteur’s report Second 1983 RERF Workshop: 48–51 143 Bond 1982 Reevaluations of Dosimetric Factors: Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Proceedings of a Symposium held at Germantown, Maryland, September 15–16, 1981 Germantown Conference Proceedings 144 (NCRP) 1988 Proceedings of the Twenty-third Annual Meeting of the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements: New Dosimetry at Hiroshima and Nagasaki and Its Implications for Risk Estimates NCRP Proceedings No. 9 145 Hamada 1988 Early work carried out by Japanese scientists NCRP Proceedings No. 9:5–13 146 Roesch 1988 Historical perspectives NCRP Proceedings No. 9:14–22 147 Christy 1988 Overview of the new dosimetry: the physical basis NCRP Proceedings No. 9:23–28 148 Haskell 1988 The use of thermoluminescence NCRP Proceedings No. 9:32–48 149 Kosako 1988 Neutron activation studies related to the reassessment of Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic-bomb dosimetry NCRP Proceedings No. 9:49–63
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Status of the Dosimetry for the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (DS86) RefID First Author Year Title Journal 150 Kaul 1988 An assessment of dosimetry system 1986 (DS86) components NCRP Proceedings No. 9:64–88 151 Kerr 1988 Sulfur activation in Hiroshima NCRP Proceedings No. 9:99–106 152 Loewe 1988 Perspectives on radiation dose estimates for A-bomb survivors NCRP Proceedings No. 9:107–1 16 153 Whalen 1988 Source spectrum and output spectrum calculations NCRP Proceedings No. 9:117–120 154 Woolson 1988 The dosimetry system 1986 (DS86) NCRP Proceedings No. 9:123–135 155 Preston 1988 The use of DS86 for the computation of dose estimates for Japanese A-bomb survivors NCRP Proceedings No. 9:136–149 156 Higashimura 1963 Science 139:1284 157 Shizuma 1997 152Eu depth profiles in granite and concrete cores exposed to the Hiroshima atomic bomb (1997) Health Phys. 72:848–855 158 Shizuma 1997 Identification of 63Ni and 60Co produced in a steel sample by thermal neutrons from the Hiroshima atomic bomb Nuclear Inst. Meth. A 384:375–379 (1997) 159 Fujita 1996 Exposed materials possessed by RERF which can be made available for TLD and neutron measurements Report to Dosimetry Committees at Irvine, CA, Meeting 160 Nakanishi 1996 Recent improvements in radiochemical procedure for determination of 152Eu at extremely low level Report to Dosimetry Committees at Irvine, CA, Meeting 161 Maruyama 1996 Summary of thermoluminescence dosimetry measurements in Hiroshima and Nagasaki Report to Dosimetry Committees at Irvine, CA, Meeting 162 Kosako 1996 Compilation of experimental dosimetry data for atomic bomb dose reassessment Report to Dosimetry Committees at Irvine, CA, Meeting 163 Iimoto 1996 Measurement of 152Eu induced by atomic bomb neutrons in Nagasaki Report to Dosimetry Committees at Irvine, CA, Meeting 164 Iimoto 1999 Improved accuracy in the measurement of 152Eu induced by atomic bomb neutrons in Nagasaki Rad. Prot. Dos. 81 (2): 141–146 (1999)
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Status of the Dosimetry for the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (DS86) RefID First Author Year Title Journal 165 Maruyama 1988 Reassessment of gamma doses from the atomic bombs in Hiroshima and Nagasaki Rad. Res. 113:1–14 (1988) 166 Hoshi 1992 Benchmark test of transport calculations of gold and nickel activation with implications for neutron kerma at Hiroshima Health Phys. 63 (5): 532–542 (1992) 167 Kato 1988 Measurements of neutron fluence from the Hiroshima atomic bomb J.Radiat. Res., 261–266 (1988) 168 Blamart 1992 Oxygen stable isotope measurements on a gravestone exposed to the Hiroshima A-bomb explosion and the “Dosimetry System 1986” Chemical Geology (Isotope Geoscience Section) 101:93–96 (1992) 169 Ruehm 1992 36Cl and 41Ca depth profiles in a Hiroshima granite stone and the Dosimetry System 1986 Z.Phys. A—Hadrons and Nuclei 341:235–238 (1992) 170 Ruehm 1995 Neutron spectrum and yield of the Hiroshima A-bomb deduced from radionuclide measurements at one location Int. J.Radiat. Biol.68 (1): 97–103 (1995) 171 Nakanishi 1998 Specific radioactivity of europium-152 in roof tiles exposed to atomic bomb radiation in Nagasaki J.Radiat. Res., 39:243–250 (1998) 172 Endo 1999 DS86 neutron dose: Monte Carlo analysis for depth profile of 152Eu activity in a large stone sample J.Radiat. Res., 40:169–181 (1999) 173 Ito 1999 A method to detect low-level 63Ni activity for estimating fast neutron fluence from the Hiroshima atomic bomb Health Phys. 76(6): 635–638 (1999) 174 Kimura 1993 Determination of specific activity of 60Co in steel samples exposed to the atomic bomb in Hiroshima Radioisotopes 41:17–20 (1993) 175 Maruyama 1999 Determinations of background in the pre-dose TL technique draft manuscript, personal communication from Dr. Maruyama 12–13–99 176 Straume 2000 Neutron measurement update Notes from Dosimetry Workshop, Hiroshima, 13–14 March, 2000
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Status of the Dosimetry for the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (DS86) RefID First Author Year Title Journal 177 Shizuma 2000 Residual radioactivity measurement in Hiroshima and Nagasaki for the evaluation of DS86 neutron fluence Poster at IRPA 10, Hiroshima, May, 2000 178 Shizuma 1999 Contribution of background neutron activation in the residual activity measurement and present status of 152Eu measurements for Nagasaki samples Notes from binational meeting on RERF dosimetry, Irvine, CA, January 1999 179 Goldhagen 1996 Neutron spectrum measurements at distances up to 2 km from a uranium fission source for comparison with transport calculations Proceedings of the American Nuclear Society Topical Meeting, April 21–25, 1996 180 Maruyama 2000 Summary of thermoluminescence measurements in Hiroshima and Nagasaki U.S.-Japan Joint Dosimetry Workshop, March 13–14, 2000, Hiroshima, Japan QUESTIONNAIRE This questionnaire prepared by W.Lowder and T.Maruyama of the U.S. and Japanese dosimetry committees, is designed to provide a basis for the collection of important information with regard to each sample of environmental material analyzed for neutron activation or gamma-induced thermoluminescence at Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Its purpose is to indicate the key questions that will be addressed during the visits of Dr. Maruyama and Mr. Lowder to the various laboratories in the U.S. and Japan where relevant measurements and calculations have been made. The individual investigators can make use of this questionnaire to prepare for those visits and have the needed information readily available at the time. The information gathered will be used to conduct an uncertainty analysis designed to identify and quantify those factors that contribute to the overall uncertainties of both measurements and calculations. The term “uncertainty” refers to both precision and accuracy, involving questions of reproducibility and bias. It can be expressed in terms of confidence limits, probable errors, standard deviations, etc. The questionnaire is divided into four sections. All investigators should review section A, which uniquely identifies the subject samples. Since different investigators are often involved in the various aspects of the collection, processing, and measurement of the samples and the conduct of the associated calculations,
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Status of the Dosimetry for the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (DS86) only those later sections that pertain to the work done at your laboratory need be considered. However, it is essential that each sample as measured can be unambiguously related to a particular field sample as collected and to a particular fluence calculation at the location of collection. So particular attention should be paid to those questions relating to sample and subsample ID’s, origin, transfer between laboratories, and current status, as well as relevant calculations. Note that some questions are repeated in different sections, so that each section is self-contained. Section A: Basic Information Provide name of responder and institution. Provide ID of sample(s), type of material, and a brief description. Indicate field sample collection location (city, structure, distance and direction from hypocenter). Indicate type of measurement, e.g., “thermal neutron activation, 152Eu” or, “T quartz.” Section B: Field Sample Collection and Treatment Provide field sample ID as assigned by the collector. Provide date of collection and name of responsible investigator. Provide a brief description of the sample as collected, including type of material, size, and weight. Describe the site of collection, including the structure containing the samples, local terrain (water and ground), and overall structural shielding geometry associated with nearby structures (to define the immediate environment surrounding the sample that affects the calculations). Give the age of the structure containing the sample and of the sample, if different. Give the height above ground of the sample collection point. Give the sample orientation relative to the line-of-sight to the burst.
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Status of the Dosimetry for the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (DS86) Provide the distance and direction from the hypocenter as determined by the collector, and indicate the method used for this determination. Provide an estimate of the uncertainty in the distance determination and indicate the method used. Describe any treatment of the field sample, including the division into subsamples. Provide the ID’s of any subsample, as assigned by the collection library. Indicate the disposition of sample and subsamples, including when, where, and to whom they were sent. Describe the current status of any sample or subsample retained at the collection laboratory. Section C: Measurement Sample Preparation and Measurement Indicate sample or subsample ID’s as received (collector’s and/or investigator’s). Give date received and from whom. Describe the sample or subsample(s), including location of collection and field sample ID. Indicate the origin of the sample or subsample(s), including both location of collection and field sample ID. Describe sample treatment procedures to prepare measurement sample(s), e.g., further division, chemistry. Provide any information on sample composition, how the composition was determined, and the source of such information. Indicate the position of measurement sample in collected field sample, if known. Provide ID’s of each measurement sample and date of measurement.
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Status of the Dosimetry for the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (DS86) Describe briefly the method of measurement, including calibration procedures. Indicate whether calibration factors have been checked by means of intercomparisons with other laboratories or other methods of quality assurance. Give the direct result(s) of the measurement(s) and its uncertainty, indicating exactly what was measured. Indicate how the measurement uncertainty was determined. Describe how the measurement background was determined (e.g., contributions from contamination, natural radiation). Describe the conversion of the measured quantity to the desired quantity, (give numerical values and units for all quantities in this conversion, including background). Give the final result(s) (that is, the eventual “M” in the C/M determination), with uncertainty and units. Indicate how this uncertainty was determined. Indicate the calculation result(s) used to determine the C/M ratio(s) (give source and reference for such results). Give the final result(s) for the C/M ratio, with estimated uncertainty. Describe how the uncertainty in the C/M ratio(s) was determined. List all published papers, laboratory reports, and reports to the dosimetry committees that include and discuss these particular measurements. Section D: Calculations Describe briefly the field sample collection site (city, structure, distance and direction from the hypocenter), and indicate if an independent estimate was made of distance from the hypocenter (with value and uncertainty). Provide field and/or measurement sample ID’s. If different from DS86, describe briefly how free-air neutron or gamma fluences at the field sample collection site were determined.
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Status of the Dosimetry for the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (DS86) Describe how the sample response was calculated. Include information on how the collection site was modeled (e.g., sample location and properties, structures, local media) and how the radiation transport from free air to the sample location was determined. Give the calculated values, with uncertainties, of free-air fluences, fluence at the sample location, and sample response. Indicate how the uncertainties were determined. List known published papers, laboratory reports, and reports to the dosimetry committees that include and discuss these calculated values and associated C/M ratios.
Representative terms from entire chapter: