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Joint doctrine has been promulgated to guide the conduct of air and missile defense in a theater;1 however, the doctrine appears to presume that the theater has already been developed and that joint forces are in place. Other than to note that the same functions must be performed in undeveloped theaters, the joint doctrine is not helpful as a guide for expeditionary warfare. Although work is ongoing to evolve this doctrine at the Joint Theater Air and Missile Defense Organization (JTAMDO), the committee is not aware of any efforts to address the expeditionary warfare setting.2

Pending the development of doctrine to guide initial operations in an undeveloped theater, it falls to the Navy and Marine Corps to define the appropriate CONOPS. A CONOPS for expeditionary warfare in the littorals must address conflicting requirements for employment of operational assets and for control of offensive and defensive operations.

Concepts for conduct of the offense are amenable to preplanning to avoid conflict yet must remain flexible enough to support operations ashore by Marine Corps units that may become subject to variation because of real-time events. At the same time, and in the same area, defensive measures must be taken to defeat ballistic missile, cruise missile, and aircraft threats to forces in the area, both afloat and ashore.

The conduct of effective theater missile defense without disruption of and conflict with offensive measures is a very difficult task but a necessary one. However, several briefers told the committee that no concepts for coordinating offensive and defensive operations have been worked out. Developing such concepts is critical to the conduct of expeditionary warfare and deserves considerable effort. Such concepts are also necessary to a proper evaluation of the adequacy of theater missile defense programs.


As discussed briefly in Chapter 1, the Department of the Navy's mission, which is to operate in the littorals and influence events ashore, has a strong impact on TMD requirements, and—as discussed in Chapter 2—the air threat

1 Fulford, LtGen C.W., Jr., USMC, Director, Joint Staff. 1999. “Joint Doctrine for Countering Air and Missile Threats,” Joint Publication 3-01, The Pentagon, Washington, D.C., October 19. Available online at <>; Ross, Lt Gen Walter K., USAF, Director, Joint Staff. 1996. “Doctrine for Joint Theater Missile Defense,” Joint Publication 3-01.5, The Pentagon, Washington, D.C., February 22. Available online at <>.

2 Joint Theater Air and Missile Defense Organization and Ballistic Missile Defense Organization. To be published. "Annex G: GTAMD 2010 Operational Concept (Draft Version 5 (Unclassified - For Official Use Only))," from 1999 Theater Air and Missile Defense (TAMD Master Plan (U), The Pentagon, Washington, D.C., December 2 (Classified).

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