Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.
Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.
OCR for page R1
Page i Aging Avionics in Military Aircraft Committee on Aging Avionics in Military Aircraft Air Force Science and Technology Board Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C.
OCR for page R2
Page ii NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20418 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This is a report of work supported by Contract Number F49620-00-1-0174 between the United States Air Force and the National Academy of Sciences. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the view of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project. International Standard Book Number 0-309-07449-5 Limited copies are available from: Air Force Science and Technology Board National Research Council 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20418 (202) 334-3118 Additional copies are available from: National Academy Press Box 285 2101 Constitution Ave., N.W. Washington, D.C. 20055 (800) 624-6242 (202) 334-3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area) http://www.nas.edu Copyright 2001 by the National Academy of Sciences . All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America
OCR for page R3
Page iii THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES National Academy of Sciences National Academy of Engineering Institute of Medicine National Research Council The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. William A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts and Dr. William A. Wulf are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council.
OCR for page R4
Page iv COMMITTEE ON AGING AVIONICS IN MILITARY AIRCRAFT ROBERT L. CATTOI, chair, consultant, Dallas, Texas NOEL LONGUEMARE, vice chair, Principal Deputy Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition and Technology (retired), Ellicott City, Maryland HENRY P. ARNOLD, BF Goodrich Aerospace, Vergennes, Vermont WILLIAM C. BOWES, Litton Industries, Woodland Hills, California STEPHEN N. BUSS, Northrop Grumman Corporation, Linthicum, Maryland JOHN D. COSGROVE, Rockwell Collins (retired), Cedar Rapids, Iowa FREDERICK H. DILL, IBM T.J. Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, New York LLEWELLYN S. DOUGHERTY, Raytheon Systems Company, El Segundo, California VALERIE J. GAWRON, Veridian Engineering Flight Research Group, Buffalo, New York DAVID R. HEEBNER, Heebner Associates, McLean, Virginia ELLIS F. HITT, Battelle, Columbus, Ohio ANDREW J. KORNECKI, Embry Riddle Aeronautical University, Daytona Beach, Florida ROCKY J. PORZIO, Lockheed Martin Federal Systems, Owego, New York GEORGE W. SUTTON, ANSER, Arlington, Virginia WILLIAM G.T. TUTTLE, JR., Logistics Management Institute, McLean, Virginia RAYFORD B. VAUGHN, JR., Mississippi State University, Mississippi BRIAN T. WRIGHT, Rockwell Collins, Cedar Rapids, Iowa Liaisons from the Air Force Science and Technology Board ROBERT A. FUHRMAN, Lockheed Corporation (retired), Pebble Beach, California ALTON D. ROMIG, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico Liaisons from the Boardon Army Science and Technology PATRICK F. FLYNN, Cummins Engine Company, Inc. (retired), Columbus, Indiana GEORGE T. SINGLEY III, Hicks and Associates, Inc., McLean, Virginia Staff BRUCE A. BRAUN, Director JAMES E. KILLIAN, Study Director GREG EYRING, Consultant PAMELA A. LEWIS, Senior Project Assistant
OCR for page R5
Page v AIR FORCE SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY BOARD ROBERT A. FUHRMAN, chair, Lockheed Corporation (retired), Pebble Beach, California ANTHONY J. BURSHNICK, U.S. Air Force (retired), Springfield, Virginia LYNN CONWAY, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor WILLIAM H. CRABTREE, consultant, Cincinnati, Ohio EARL H. DOWELL, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina ALAN H. EPSTEIN, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge ALFRED B. GSCHWENDTNER, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge ROBERT G. LOEWY, Georgia Institute of Technology School of Aerospace Engineering, Atlanta JOHN MICHAEL LOH, U.S. Air Force (retired), Williamsburg, Virginia NOEL LONGUEMARE, Principal Deputy Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition and Technology (retired), Ellicott City, Maryland THOMAS S. MOORMAN, JR., U.S. Air Force (retired), McLean, Virginia BRADFORD W. PARKINSON, Stanford University, Stanford, California RICHARD R. PAUL, Boeing Company, Seattle, Washington ELI RESHOTKO, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio ALTON D. ROMIG, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico Staff BRUCE A. BRAUN, Director MICHAEL A. CLARKE, Associate Director CHRIS JONES, Financial Associate WILLIAM E. CAMPBELL, Administrative Coordinator DEANNA SPARGER, Senior Project Assistant REBECCA LUCCHESE, Senior Project Assistant
OCR for page R6
OCR for page R7
Page vii Preface Questions about the readiness of U.S. military forces to go into battle have received widespread attention in recent years, and the issue was hotly debated in the 2000 U.S. presidential campaign. Partly as a result of a slowdown in purchasing of new materiel in the 1990s, many weapon systems are showing their age, and their lifetimes are being extended beyond their original design lifetimes. This has led to increased maintenance costs and reduced mission-capable rates. The problem is especially severe with electronics systems, such as aircraft avionics, which increasingly depend on commercially available components that have a technology-refresh cycle as short as 18 months and an availability cycle of less than a decade. This study was requested by the Assistant Secretary of the Air Force for Acquisition to address three areas: Provide a “heading check” on what the Air Force is doing to address the aging avionics problem. Provide suggestions for additional actions. Comment on the division of responsibility between government and industry for maintaining avionics systems. In the course of its deliberations, the Committee on Aging Avionics in Military Aircraft received many briefings on the aging avionics issue from the perspective of the Air Force, Navy, Army, Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD), and contractors. The committee also sought out the views of commanders of three Air Force Major Commands, as well as senior executives in the Air Force Secretariat. The committee found that more than 25 different organizations in the military services, OSD, and industry are already working on various aspects of the aging avionics problem. One of the contributions of this study will be to raise the awareness of concerned decision makers of related work being done in various other organizations and to facilitate meaningful coordination among them. The committee greatly appreciates the support and assistance of National Research Council staff members James Killian, Pamela Lewis, and Carol Arenberg and consultant Greg Eyring in the production of this report. Robert L. Cattoi, chair Noel Longuemare, vice chair Committee on Aging Avionics in Military Aircraft
OCR for page R8
OCR for page R9
Page ix Acknowledgments This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the NRC's Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this report: Gen. George Babbitt, U.S. Air Force (retired) Dr. John M. Borky, Tamarac Technologies, LLC Lt. Gen. Gordon E. Fornell, U.S. Air Force (retired) Dr. Nancy G. Leveson (NAE), Massachusetts Institute of Technology Mr. Robert N. Lutter, The Boeing Company Mr. David W. Mineck, Kaiser Aerospace and Electronics Corporation Dr. Eberhardt Rechtin (NAE), University of Southern California (retired) Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Raymond S. Colladay, appointed by the Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences, who was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the National Research Council.
OCR for page R10
OCR for page R11
Page xi Contents EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 1 1 INTRODUCTION 7 Statement of Task, 9 Forms of Obsolescence, 10 Obsolescence of Hardware and Software, 10 Inadequate Performance of Hardware/Software Systems, 11 Future Management of Obsolescence, 12 Report Structure, 13 2 MAGNITUDE OF THE PROBLEM 14 Diminishing Manufacturing Sources/Out-of-Production Parts, 14 Rising Support Costs, 15 Budget for Modernizing Avionics, 16 Declining Readiness, 20 3 CURRENT ACTIVITIES AND PROGRAMS 21 4 ANALYSIS OF THE CURRENT SITUATION 25 Government Enterprise-Management Processes, 25 Fragmented Responsibilities, 25 Education and Retention of Qualified Personnel, 27 Training, 28 Budgetary Issues, 28 Long Acquisition and Upgrade Cycles, 29 Colors of Money, 30 Front-End Funding, 30
OCR for page R12
Page xii Technical Issues, 31 Common Understanding of MOSA, 32 MOSA Design Tools, 33 Database for the Reuse of Designs, 34 Configuration Management, 34 Streamlining Requalification/Recertification Testing, 34 Business Issues, 35 Concerns of Avionics Suppliers, 35 Intellectual Property, 36 Responsibility for Sustainment, 37 Looking Ahead, 38 5 FINDINGS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 39 General Findings, 39 Specific Findings in Key Issue Areas, 40 Government Management Issues, 40 Budgetary Issues, 40 Technical Issues, 41 Business Issues, 41 Recommendations, 42 Recommendations Specific to the Air Force, 42 Recommendations That Apply to All of the Services, 43 REFERENCES 46 APPENDIXES 47 A Current Activities and Programs, 47 B Biographical Sketches of Committee Members, 56 C Meetings and Activities, 60
OCR for page R13
Page xiii Tables and Figures TABLES 2-1 Accelerating Obsolescence of Military/Aerospace Devices, 15 2-2 Aircraft Currently in Service, 19 3-1 Current DMS/OP Activities, 22 FIGURES 1-1 Average age of U.S. Air Force aircraft, 8 1-2 Decline in the military market share for integrated circuits, 9 1-3 Historic trends in avionics processing, 12 2-1 Cost of avionics in depot-level aircraft maintenance for FY99, 15 2-2 Projected depot-level avionics operations and maintenance costs, 16 2-3 FY01 President's Budget Request for avionics modernization, 17 2-4 Out-year costs after FY05 for avionics modernization (approximately $5 billion), 17 2-5 Declining Air Force mission-capable rate, 18 4-1 Life-cycle mismatch, 29 4-2 JSF architectural hierarchy, 31 4-3 Architectural framework adopted by the Open System Joint Task Force, 32
OCR for page R14
Page xiv Acronyms ACAT acquisition category AFMC Air Force Materiel Command AFRL Air Force Research Laboratory AVCOM avionics component obsolescence management COTS commercial off-the-shelf DMS diminishing manufacturing sources DMS/OP diminishing manufacturing sources/ out-of-production parts DoD U.S. Department of Defense FAA Federal Aviation Administration FY fiscal year GATM global air traffic management GIDEP Government Industry Data Exchange Program GIG Global Information Grid IPT integrated product team IWSM integrated weapon-system management JIAWG Joint Integrated Avionics Working Group JSF Joint Strike Fighter JTA Joint Technical Architecture MDAP major defense acquisition program Mil Spec Military Specification MOSA modular open-system approach OASD (C3I) Office of the Assistant Secretary of Defense (Command, Control, Communications, and Intelligence) O&M operations and maintenance OSD Office of the Secretary of Defense PBR President's Budget Request QAPR Quarterly Acquisition Program Review R&D research and development RDT&E research, development, test, and evaluation RVSM reduced vertical-separation minimum SAF/AQ Assistant Secretary of the Air Force for Acquisition SEI Software Engineering Institute SPO system program office TACTech Transition Analysis of Component Technology TCAS traffic collision-avoidance system TOC total ownership cost USD Under Secretary of Defense