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SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY ASSESSMENT OF MOBILITY Allen, W., A. Griffith, and C. Shaw 1977 Orientation and Mobility: _ Older Adventiously Blind Individuals. Independent Living. Behavioral Objectives for Teachi Apple, L.E., and M. May 1971 Distance Vision and Perceptual Training: New York: Center for A Concept for Use in t American Foundation for the Blind Armstrong, J.D. ~ 1969 Combined mobility system for the blind. Nature 222:1301-1302. Blasch, B.B., and L.E. Apple 1975 Workshop on Low Vision Mobility. Washington, D.C.: Veterans Administration, Department of Medicine and Surgery. Brabyn, J.A., H.R. Sirisena, and G.R.S. Clark 1978 Instrumentation system for blind mobility aid simulation and evaluation. IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering BME-25(6):556-559. Brabyn, J.A., and E.R. Strelow 1977 Computer-analyzed measures of characteristics of human locomotion and mobility. Behavior Research Methods and Instrumentation 9:456-462. Buijk, C.A. 1979 Mobility of the blind and partially sighted. International Journal of Rehabilitation Research 2~1~:90-93. Clarke, N.V., G.F. Pick, and J.P. Wilson 1975 Obstacle detection with and without the aid of directional noise generator. American Foundation for the Blind Research Bulletin 29:67-85. Cratty, B.J. 1967 The perception of gradient and the veering tendency while walking without vision. American Foundation for the Blind Research Bulletin 14:31-52. 1971 Movement and ~ find children and Youth. Springfield, Ill.: Charles C. Thomas. 95

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96 De l'Aune, W.R 1978 Research and the mobility specialist. Journal of Visual Impairment and Blindness 72(7):267-272.- De l'Aune, W.R., W.E. Needham, and G. Kevorkian 1975 Relationship between mobility and personality factors in the blind: I. Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory. Journal of the International Research Communication System (3):80. De l'Aune, W.R., P. Scheel, and W. Needham 1974 Methodology for training indoor acoustic environmental analysis in blinded veterans. Journal of the Interantional Research Communication System (2~. Del Frari, P. 1978 Meeting the O & M needs of the multiply handicapped blind individual. Journal of Visual Impairment and Blindness 7 2 ( 8): 324-325. Dodds, A.G., D.D.C. Carter, and C.I. Howarth 1983 Improving objective measures of mobility. Journal of Visual Impairment and Blindness 77~9~:438-442. Foulke, E. 1971 The perceptual basis for mobility. American Foundation for the Blind Research Bulletin (23~:1-8. . 1982 Perception, cognition and the mobility of blind pedestrians. In M. Potegal, ea., Spatial Abilities: Development and Physiological Foundations. New York: Academic Press . Franks, F.L., and C.Y. Nolan 1971 Measuring geographical concept attainment in visually handicapped students. Education of the Visually Handicapped Genensky, S.M., S.H. Berry, T.H. Bikson, and T.K. Bikson 1979 Visual Environmental Adaptation Problems of the Partially Sighted: Final Report. Santa Monica, Calif.: Center for the Partially Sighted. Geruschat, D.R. 1980 Orientation and mobility for the low functioning deaf-blind child. Journal of Visual Impairment and Blindness 74~1~:29-33 . Gillman, A.E., and E.P. Simon 1980 Mobility follow up survey: Who travels and where do they go? Journal of Visual Impairment and Blindness 74~8~:302-304. Gillman, A.E., E.P. Simon, S. Rosenheim, and B. Rosenblatt 1979 Mobility training: Who comes for it and who succeeds at it? Journal of Visual Impairment and Blindness 73~10, :385-388. Graham, M.D. 1965 Wanted: A readiness test for mobility training. New Outlook for the Blind (59~:157-162. Hapeman, L.B. 1967 Developmental concepts of blind children between the ages of 3 and 6 as they relate to orientation and mobility. International Journal for the Education of the Blind (17):41-48.

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c J7 Harley, R.K., and J.B. Merbler 1975 Development of an orientation and mobility program for multiply impaired low vision children. Journal of Visua Impairment and Blindness 74~1~:9-14. Harley, R.K., J.B. Merbler, and T.A. Wood 1975 The development of a scale in orientation and mobility for multiply impaired blind children. Education of the Visually Handicapped {7~:1-5. Heyes, A.D., J.D. Armstrong, and P.R. Williams 1976 A comparison of heart rates during blind mobility and car driving. Ergonomics 19~4~:489-497. Hill, A., C. Spencer, and K. Baybutt 1985 Predicting efficiency of travel in young, visually impaired children from their other spatial skills. Journal of Visual Impairment and Blindness 79(7):297-300. Hill, E.W., and P. Ponder 1976 Orientation and Mobility Techniques: A Guide for the Practitioner. New York: American Foundation for the Rlind. Jansson, G. 1984 Contributions of theories of perception to the development of non-visual travel aids. Proceedings of the Conference on Visual Spatial Prostheses, Riverside, Calif. Juurma, J. 1972 The spatial sense of the blind: A plan for research. American Foundation for the Blind Research Bulletin (241:57-64. Kay, L. 1974 Toward Objective Mobility Evaluation: Some Thoughts on a . Theory. New York: American Foundation for the Blind. Leonard, J.A. 1967 The evaluation of blind mobility. American Foundation for the Blind Research Bulletin (26):73-76. 1968 Towards a unified approach to the mobility of blind people. American Foundation for the Blind Research Bulletin (18):1-21. 1972 Studies in blind mobility. Applied Ergonomics (3~:37-46. 1973 The evaluation of blind mobility. American Foundation for the Blind Research Bulletin (26~:73-76.- . Lockman, J.J., J.J. Reiser, and H.L. Pick, Jr. 1981 Assessing blind travelers' knowledge of spatial layout. Journal of Visual Impairment and Blindness 75~81:321-326. Lord, F.E. 1969 Development of scales for the measurement of orientation and mobility of young blind children. Exceptional Children 36:77-81. Love, J. 1982 Orientation and mobility problems among the geriatric blind population : A survey of needs. Journal of Visual Impairment and Blindness 76~2~:66-68. Marron, J.A., and I.L. Bailey 1982 Visual factors and orientation-mobility performance. American Journal of Optometry and Physiological Optics 59~51:413-426.

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98 McLinden, D.J. 1981 Instructional objectives for orientation and mobility. Journal of Visual Impairment and Blindness 75~7~:300-303. Mickunas, J., and T.B. Sheridan 1963 Use of an obstacle course in evaluating mobility of the blind. American Foundation for the Blind Research Bulletin (3):35-54. Psathas, G. 1976 Mobility, orientation and navigation: Conceptual and theoretical considerations. New Outlook for the Blind 70(9):385-391. Rieser, J.J., D. Guth, and E.W. Hill 1982 Mental processes mediating independent travel: Implications for orientation and mobility. Journal of Visual Impairment and Blindness 76:213-218. Rieser, J.J., J.J. Lockman, and H.L. Pick, Jr. 1980 The role of visual experience in knowledge of spatial _ Perception and Psychophysics 28:185-190. Rusalem, H. 1972 Coping With an Unseen Environment New York: Teachers . College Press. Schulz, P.J. 1977 Mobility and Independence for the Visually Handicapped: Psychological Dynamics of the Teaching Process. Los Angeles: Muse Ed Company. Shingledecker, C.A. 1983 Measuring the mental effort of blind mobility. Journal of Visual Impairment and Blindness 77~7~:334-339. Shingledecker, C.A., and E. Foulke 1978 A human factors approach to the assessment of the mobility of blind pedestrians. Human Factors 20~3~:273-286. Strelow, E.R. 1985 What is needed for a theory of mobility: Direct perception and cognitive maps--some lessons from the blind. Psychological Review 92:226-248. Strelow, E.R., and J.A. Brabyn 1981 Use of foreground and background information in visually guided locomotion. Perception 10:191-198. 1982 Use of natural sound cues by the blind to control locomotion. Perception 11:635-640. Strelow, E.R., J.A. Brabyn, and G.R.S. Clark 1976 Apparatus for measuring and recording path, velocity and direction characteristics of human locomotion. Behavior Research Methods and Instrumentation 8:442-446. Tachi, S., R.W. Mann, and D. Rowell 1983 Quantitative compassion of alternative sensory displays for mobility aids for the blind. IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering BME-30~9~:571-577. Warren, D.H., and J.A. Rocon 1974 Factors in the successful mobility of the blind: A review. American Foundation for the Blind Research Bulletin 28 :191-218 .

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99 Warren, D.H., and E.R. Strelow 1984 Learning spatial dimensions with a visual sensory aid: Molyneux revisited. Perception 13:331-350. Warren, D.H., and E.R. Strelow, eds. 1985 Electronic Spatial Sensing for the Blind: _ Perception, Rehabilitation and Computer Vision. The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff. Weisberger, R., and A. Hall 1975 Environmental Sensing Skills and Behaviors . Calif.: American Institutes for Research. Welsh, R.L., and B.B. Blasch 1980 Foundations of Orientation and Mobility. New York: American Foundation for the Blind. Zahl, P.A., ed. 1950 Blindness: Contributions From Palo Alto, Modern Approaches to the Unseen Environment . Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press. PERCEPTUAL, COGNITIVE, AND ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS Theory/Overview Kuipers, B. 1983 The cognitive map: Could it have been any other way? In H.L. Pick, Jr., and L.P. Acredolo, eds., Spatial Orientation Theory: Research and Application. New York: Plenum Press. Shingledecker, C.A., and E. Foulke 1978 A human factors approach to the assessment of the mobility of blind pedestrians. Human Factors 20~3~:273-286. Strelow, E.R. 1985 What is needed for a theory of mobility: Direct perception and cognitive maps--some lessons from the blind. Psychological Review 92:226-248. Sedgwick, H.A. 1982 Visual modes of spatial orientation. In M. Potegal, ea., Spatial Abilities: Development and Physiological Bases. New Academic Press. York: Tobler, W. 1976 The geometry of mental maps. In R.G. Golledge and G. Rushton, eds., Spatial Choice and Spatial Behavior: Geographic Essays on the Analysis of Preferences and Perceptions Columbus: . Ohio State University Press. Welsh, R.L., and B.8. Blasch 1980 Foundations of Orientation and Mobility. New York: American Foundation for the Blind.

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100 Motor Cratty, B.J. 1967 The perception of gradient and the veering tendency while walking without vision. American Foundation for the Blind Research Bulletin 14:31-51. Cratty, B.J., and T.A. Sams 1968 The Body-Image of Blind Children. New York: American Foundation for the Blind. Turner, M., and I.M. Siegel 1969 Physical therapy for the blind children. Physical Therapy 49:1357-1363. Perceptual Cotzin, M., and K.M. Dallenbach 1950 Facial vision: The role of pitch and loudness in the perception of obstacles by the blind. American Journal of Psychology 63:485-515. Cratty, B.J., C. Peterson, J. Harris, and R. Schoner 1968 The development of perceptual-motor abilities in blind children and adolescents. New Outlook for the Blind 62:111-117. Dodds, A.G., C.I. Howarth, and D.C. Carter 1982 The mental maps of the blind: The role of previous experience. Journal of Visual Impairment and Blindness 76:5-12. Fletcher, J.F. 1980 Spatial representation in blind children. 1: Development compared to sighted children. Journal of Visual Impairment and Blindness 74:381-385. Herman, J.F., S. P. Chatman, and S.F. Roth 1983 Cognitive mapping in blind people: Acquisitions of spatial relationships in a large-scale environment. Journal of Visual Impairment and Blindness 77:161-166. Herman, J.F., T.G. Herman, and S.P. Chatman 1983 Constructing cognitive maps from partial information: A demonstration study with cogenitally blind subjects. Journal of Visual Impairment and Blindness 77:195-198. Hollyfield, R.L. r and E. Foulke 1983 The spatial cognition of blind pedestrians. Journal of Visual Impairment and Blindness 77:204-210. Kohler, I. 1964 Orientation by aural clues. American Foundation for the Blind Research Bulletin 14:14-53. Bet He Gleitman, and E. Spelke Landau, 1981 Spatial knowledge and geometric representations in the child blind from birth. Science 213:1275-1277. Leonard, J.A., and R.C. Newman 1967 Spatial orientation in the blind. Nature 215:1413-1414.

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101 Martinez, F. 1977 Does auditory information permit the establishment of spatial orientation? Experimental and clinical data with the congenitally blind. Annee Psychologique 77:179-204. Rice, C.E., and S.H. Feinstein 1965 Echo detection ability of the blind: Size and distance factors. Journal of Experimental Psychology 70:246-251. Rieser, J.J., D. Guth, and E.W. Hill 1982 Mental processes mediating independent travel: Implications for orientation and mobility. Journal of Visual Impairment and Blindness 76:213-218. Rosencranz, D., and R. Suslick 1976 Cognitive models for spatial representations in congenitally blind, adventitiously blind, and sighted subjects. New Outlook for the Blind 70:188-194. Schmitt, T.L. 1978 Early Experience and Spatial Functioning in the Blind. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of California, Riverside. Worchel, P. 1951 Space perception and orientation in the blind. Psychological Monographs 65:1-28. Cognitive Casey, S.M. 1978 Cognitive mapping by the blind. Journal of Visual Impairment and Blindness 72:297-301. Foulke, E. 1962 The role of experience in the formation of concepts. International Journal for the Education of the Blind 12:1-6. 1985 The cognitive foundations of mobility. Pp. 463-486 in D.H. Warren and E.R. Strelow, eds., Electronic Spatial Sensing for the Blind. The Hague: Martinus-Nijhoff. Hart, R., and M.A. Berzok 1982 Children's strategies for mapping the geographic-scale environment. In M. Potegal, ea., Spatial Abilities: Development and Physiological Bases. New York: Academic Press. Lockman, J.J., J.J. Reiser, and H.L. Pick, Jr. 1981 Assessing blind travelers' knowledge of spatial layout. Journal of Visual Impairment and Blindness 75~8~:321-326. McReynolds, J., and P. Worchel 1954 Geographic orientation in the blind. Journal of General Psychology 51:221-236. Pick, H.L., Jr., A. Yonas, and J.J. Rieser 1979 Spatial reference systems in perceptual development. In M. Bornstein and W. Kessen, eds., Psychological Development From Infancy. Hillsdale, N.J.: Erlbaum.

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102 Rieser, J.J., J.J. Lockman, and H.L. Pick, Jr. 1980 The role of visual experience In knowledge of spatial layout. Perception and Psychophysics 28:185-190. PHYSIOLOGICAL CONSIDERATIONS Adelson, E., and S. Fraiberg 1974 Gross motor development in infants blind from birth. Child Devlopment 45:114-126. Adrian, E.D. 1928 The Basis of Sensation: The Action of the Sense Organs. New York: Hafner. Almli, C.R., and S. Finger, eds. 1984 The Behavioral Biology of Early Brain Damage. New York Academic. Bach-y-Rita, P. 1972 Brain Mechanisms in Sensory Substitution. New York: Academic. 1982 Sensory substitution in rehabilitation. Pp. 361-383 in L. Illis, M. Sedgwick, and H. Granville, eds., Rehabilitation of the Neurological Patient. Oxford: Blackwell Scientific Publications. 1983 Tactile vision substitution: Past and future. International Journal of Neurscience 19:29-36. Bach-y-Rita, P., ed. 1980 Recovery of Function: Theoretical Considerations for Brain Injury Rehabilitation. Baltimore: University Park Press. Barlow, H.B. 1979 Reconstructing the visual image :~ ~^ ~~= (London) 279:189-190. Barraga, N.C. 1964 Increased Visual Behavior in Low Vision Children. Res. Ser. t13. New York: American Foundation for the Blind. 1976 Visual Handicaps and Learning: A Developmental Approach. Belmont, Calif.: Wadsworth Publishing. Bauman, M.K., and N . M. Yoder 1966 Adjustments to Blindness-Reviewed. Springf ield, Ill Charles C. Thomas. Bishop, P.O. Central nervous system: Afferent mechanisms and perception. Annual Review of Physiology 29:427-484. Blakemore, C., and G. Cooper 1970 Development of the brain depends on the visual environment. Nature (London) 227:477-478. Burlingham, D. 1979 To be blind in a sighted world. Psychoanalytic Studies of the Child 34:5-30. Carterette, E., and M.D. Friedman, eds. 1978 Handbook of Perception VIII. New York: Academic. ~n space and time. Nature

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103 Creutzfeldt, O.D. 1977 Generality of the functional structure of the neocortex. Naturwissenschaften 64:507-517. Darian-Smith, I. 1968 Somatic sensation. Annual Review of Psychology 31:417-450. Dodds, A.G., C.I. Howarth, and D.C. Carter 1982 The mental maps of the blind: The role of previous experience. Journal of Visual Impairment and Blindness 76:5-12. Epstein, W. 1985 Amodal information and transmodal perception. Pp. 421-430 in D. Warren and E.R. Strelow, eds., Electronic Spatial Sensing for the Blind. The Hague: Martinus-Nijhoff. Fletcher, J.F. 1980 Spatial representation in blind children. I. Development compared to sighted children. Journal of Visual Impairment and Blindness 74:381-385. Fraiberg, S. 1977 Insights from the Blind. New York: Basic Books. Gerhardt, J.B. 1982 The development of object play and classifactory skills in a blind child. Journal of Visual Impairment and Blindness 76:219-223. Gottleib, G., ed. 1978 Studies on the Development of Behavior and the Nervous System. Early Influences. New York: Academic Press. Guess, D. 1967 Mental retardation and blindness: A complex and relatively unexplored dyed. Exceptional Children 33:471-480. Hare, B.A., D.D. Hammill, and J.M. Crandell 1970 Auditory discrimination ability of visually limited children. New Outlook for the Blind 64:287-292 e Held, R., and A. Hein 1963 Movement-produced stimulation in the development of visually-guided behavior. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology 56: 872-876. Hoff, M.W., G. Van, and Mohn, eds. 1981 Functional Recovery from Brain Damage. Developments in Neuroscience. New York: Elsevier. Hunt, J.M. 1979 Psychological development. Early experience. Annual Review of Psychology 30:103-143. Jankowski, L.W., and J.K. Evans 1981 The exercise capacity of blind children. Journal of Visual Impairment and Blindness 75:248-251. Jastrzembska, Z., ed. 1979 The Effects of Blindness and Other Impairments on Early Development. New York: American Foundation for the Blind. Kenshalo, D.R., ed. 1968 The Skin Senses. Springfield, Ill.: Charles C. Thomas.

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104 Lund, R. 1978 Development and Plasticity of the Brain. An Introduction New York: Oxford. Mountcastle, V.B., ed. 1968 Medical Physiology, Vol. lI. St. Louis: Mosby. Novikova, L.A. 1973 Blindness and the Electrical Activity of the Brain Res. Ser. #23. New York: American Foundation for the Blind. Peters, A., and E.G. Jones, eds. 1984 Cerebral Cortex. Vol. I, Cellular Components of the Cerebral Cortex. New York: Plenum. Prinz, W. and A.F. Sanders, eds. 1984 Cognition and Motor Processes. Berlin: springer-Verlag. Rosencranz, D., and R. Suslick 1976 Cognitive models for spatial representations in congenitally blind, adventitiously blind, and sighted subjects. New Outlook for the Blind 70:188-194. Rosenweig, M., and E. Bennett, eds. 1976 Neural Mechanisms of Learning and Memory. Cambridge, Mass.. Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Schiff, W., and E. Foulke, eds. 1982 Tactual Perception - A Source Book. Cambridge, Eng.: Cambridge University Press. Scholl, G., and R. Schnur 1976 Measures of Psychological, Vocational, and Educational Functioning in the Blind and Visually Handicapped. New York: _ American Foundation for the Blind. Scott, R.A. 1968 The Making of Blind Men. New York: Russell Sage Foundation. Sinclair, D. 1967 Cutaneous Sensation. London: Oxford University Press. Walk, R.D., and H.L. Pick, Jr., eds. 1981 Intersensory Perception and Sensorv Integrations London: Plenum. Warren, D. 1984 Blindness and Early Childhood Development. 2nd edition. New York: American Foundation for the Blind. Worchel, P. 1951 Space perception and orientation in the blind. Psychology Monographs 65:1-28. Zotterman, Y., ed. 1876 Sensory Functions of the Skin in Primates. Oxford: Pergamon. van Beskey, G. 1967 Sensory Inhibitione Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press. TECHNOLOGY OF INFORMATION ACQUISITION AND DISPLAY Airasian, P.W. 1973 Evaluation of the binaural sensory aid. AFB Research Bulletin 26:51-71.

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105 Armstrong, J.D., and R.C. Worsey 1972 The adding of visual information to previously recorded video-tapes: A functioning system. Ouarterlv Journal of Experimental Psychology 24:351-353. Barrow, H.G., and J.M. Tenenbaum 1978 Recovering intrinsic scene characteristics from images. In A. Hanson and E. Riseman, eds., Computer Vision Systems. New York: Academic Press. Brabyn, J.A. 1978 Laboratory Studies of Aided Blind Mobility. Ph.D. Thesis. University of Canterbury. Brabyn, L.A., and J.A. Brabyn 1983 An evaluation of "Talking Signs" for the blind. Human Factors 25 (1):49-53. Brabyn, J.A., and E.R. Strelow 1977 Computer-analyzed measures of characteristics of human locomotion and mobility. Behavior Research Methods and Instrumentation 9:456-462. Brabyn, J.A., H.R. Sirisena, and G.R. Clark 1978 Instrumentation system for blind mobility aid simulation and evaluation. IEEE Transcript BME-25~6~:556-559. Brown, B., L.A. Brabyn, L. Welch, G. Haegerstrom-Portnoy, and A. Colenbrander 1986 The Contribution of Vision Variables to Mobility in SMD Patients. Unpublished manuscript. Charden, G. 1965 A mobility aid for the blind. Proceedings: Rotterdam Mobility Research Conference. New York: American Foundation - for the Blind. Clark, L., ed. 1963 Proceedings: International Conference on Technology and Blindness. New York: American Foundation for the Blind. Collins, C.C., and W. O'Connor 1978 Blind mobility studies with a microcomputer. Proceedings San Jose Computer Conference. Cranmer, T.V. 1967 Evaluation of the sonic mobility aid in Kentucky. In R. Dufton, ea., Proceedings: International Conference on Sensor Y Devices for the Blind. London: St. Dunstans. Curtis, W.R. 1971 Pathsounder travel aid evaluation: 2~. In P.W. Nye, ea., Proceedings: Conference on Evaluation of MobilitY AidS for the Blind. Washington, D.C.: National Academy of Engineering. Deering r M.F. 1982 Real-Time Natural Scene Analysis for a Blind Prosthesis. - Fairchild Technical Report No. 622. Palo Alto, Calif.: Fairchild Laboratory for Artificial Intelligence Research. Deering, M.F., and C.C. Collins 1981 Real-time natural scene analysis for a blind prosthesis. Proceedings: International Conference on Artificial Intelligence IJCAI-81: 704-709. Vancouver, British Columbia. Canada.

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106 Dodds, A.G., D.C. Carter, and C.I. Howarth 1983 Improving objective measures of mobility. Journal of Visual Impairment and Blindness 77~9) (November): 438-442. Dodds, A.G., J.D. Armstrong, and C.A. Shingledecker 1982 The Nottingham Obstacle Detector: Development and evaluation. Journal of Visual Impairment and Blindness 75:244-247. Dreyfus, H.L. 1979 What Computers Can't Do: The Limits of Artificial Intelligence. Rev. ed. New York: Harper and Row. Elliot, E. 1967 Evaluating a sonic aid for blind guidance. R. Dufton, ea., Proceedings: International Conference on Sensory Devices for the Blind. London: St. Dunstans. Freidberger, H.M. 1967 Fabrication of obstacle detectors for the blind. Bulletin of Prosthesis Research 8. Guenst, D.J. 1980 A Study of the Relation Between Clinically-Measured Visual Loss and Orientation and Mobility Performance. Unpublished master's thesis, Department of Optometry, University of Melbourne. Heyes, A.D. 1982 A "Polaroid" ultrasonic travel aid for the blind? Journal of Visual Impairment and Blindness 76~5~{May):199-201. Jansson, G., and B. Schenkman 1977 The Effect of the Range of a Laser Cane on the Detection of Obiects by the Blind. University Report No. 211. University of Uppsala, Sweden. Kay, L. 1973 The Design and Evaluation of a Sensory Aid to Enhance Spatial Perception of the Blind. Report No. 21. Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Canterbury, New Zealand. Kelly, G.W. 1981 Sonic orientation and navigational aid (SONA). Bulletin of Prosthetics Research 1 (Spring):189. Lavin, M. 1979 Analysis of scenes from a moving viewpoint. In P. Winston and R. Brown, eds., Artificial Intelligence: An MIT Perspective. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press. Leonard, J.A., and A. Carpenter 1964 Trial of an acoustic blind aid. AFB Research Bulletin 4:70-119. 1968 Towards a unified approach to the mobility of blind people. AFB Research Bulletin 18:1-21. l 1973 The evaluation of blind mobility. AFB Research Bulletin 26:73-76. Morrissette, D.L., and G.L. Goodrich 1983 The night vision aid for legally blind people with night blindness: An evaluation. Journal of Visual Impairment and Blindness 77~2) (February):67-70.

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107 Morvac, H. 1977 Towards automatic visual obstacle avoidance. Pp. 576-82 in Proceedings of IJCAI-77. Cambridge, Mass.:. Murphy, T.J., N.C. Johnson, S.E. Stealey, and I. Kenji 1973 Evaluation of the Binaural Sensor in the Rehabilitation of the Blind. Report from the Illinois Visually Handicapped Institute. Nelkin, A. 1965 Ultrasonic aid for the blind. Proceedings: Rotterdam Mobility Research Conference. New York: American Foundation for the Blind. Riley, L.H., G.M. Well, and A.Y. Cohen 1968 Evaluation of the sonic mobility aid. AFB Research Bulletin 17:181-120. Russell, L. 1971 Pathsounder travel aid evaluation: 1". In P.W. Nye, ea., Proceedings: Conference on Evaluation of Mobility Aids for the Blind. Washington, D.C.: National Academy of Engineering Sekroder, P., and C. Susskind 1964 Electronics and the blind. Advanced Electron. Phys. 20:261:301. Sharpe, R. no The Evaluation of the St. Dunstans Manual of Instruction for date the Kay Sonic Aid. Report. Psychology Department, University of Nottingham. Starkiewica, W., and I. Kuliszewski 1965 Progress report on the electropalm mobilitiy aid. Proceedings: Rotterdam Mobility Research Conference. New York: American Foundation for the Blind. Strelow, E.R., and J.A. Brabyn 1982 Locomotion of the blind controlled by natural sound cues. Perception 11:635-640. Strelow, E.R., J.A. Brabyn, and G.R. Clark 1976 Apparatus for measuring and recording path, velocity, and direction characteristics of human location. Behavior Research Methods and Instrumentation 8:422, 446. Shingledecker, C. 1983 Measuring the mental effort of blind mobility. Journal of Visual Impairment and Blindness 77~7) :334-339. Tachi, S., and K. Romoriya 1984 Guide robot dog. Proceedings of the 2nd International Congress on Robotics Research. Ryoto, Japan. Tachi, S., R.W. Mann, and D. Rowell 1983 Quantitative comparison of alternative sensory displays for mobility aids for the blind. IEEE Transcript BME-30, 9:571-576. Thornton, W. 1973 Evaluation of the Binaural Sensor or Sonic Glasses. Research report. London: St. Dunstans. Ward, A.L. 1973 An Evaluation of the Ultrasonic Binaural Sensor in Rehabilitation of the Blind. Final report. Little Rock: Arkansas Enterprises for the Blind.

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SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS CAGE (When Date Entered) ~ REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE | 1. REPORT NUMBER t2. GOVT ACC ESSION NO. 4. TITL E (and Subtitle) Elec tronic Travel Aids: New Directions f or Research READ INSTRUCTIONS BEFORE COMPLETING FORM 3. RECIPI EN T.S CAT ALE_ S. TYPE OF REPORT ~ PERIOD COVERED Technical Report 6. PERFORMING ~~ ~5~" ~ `~.~ . . 7. AU Th1OR(~) Working Group on Mobility Aids for the Visually Impaired and Blind B. CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBER(~) N00014-80-C-Q159 - i 9. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME AND ADDRESS 10. PROGRAM ELEMENT. PROJECT' TASK AREA ~ WORK UNIT NUMBERS NR 201-124 11. CONTROLLING OFflCE NAME AND ADDRESS Of f ice of Naval Research Arlington, Virginia 22217-5000 12. REPORT DATE August, 1986 13. NUMBER OF PAGES 119 1S. SECURITY CLASS. (of tint. r-pOn) 14. MONITORING AGENCY FRAME ~ ADDRESS(ff dtiferent from Controtitnd Office) 16. DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT (of tints Report) Approved for Public Release: Distribution Unlimited 17. DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT (of the abstract entered in Block 20, If different from ReportJ 18. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES t9. KEY WORC)S (Continue on restore. aide if nocese~ Ed Identify by block number) vision Electronic Travel Aids Mobility Visual impairment Blind Committee on vision 20. ABSTRACT fConttna. on revere. aido If necese-ry and Identify by bloc* number) Unclass if fed l 1 Sa. DECL ASSI Fl C ATI ONI DOWN GRADI N G SCH EDU LE 1 1 1 - Independent travel iS an important goal sought by most ~risually impai.red and blind individuals. Many hope that advances in electronics technology will yield an electronic travel aid which provides the same type of information about space as that which guides the travel of sighted pedestrians. This report explores the factors underlying the mobility process relevant to the design, development and use of mobility aids . 1 1 DD ~ ~,`~ ,3 1473 EDITION OF 1 NOV AS IS OBSOLETE S,'N 0102- Lf- 014- 6601 ~- SECURITY CLASSlPlCATION OF THIS PAGE (When Det. ~ntered)