testinal taeniosis is usually cured with a single dose of praziquantel, as low as 5 mg/kg [176].

Patients with parenchymal NCC typically present with seizures. In the Ecuadoran study, two of three patients with epilepsy secondary to NCC presented with partial seizures. Although anticonvulsants are routinely prescribed, Latin American researchers advocate the concomitant use of antiparasitic drugs and steroids where there is evidence of active NCC [179,180 and 181]. In fact, there appears to be a decrease in seizure frequency in patients thus treated [182,183].

The Ecuadoran study and others in Africa and Asia [90,94,184,185] revealed that individuals suffering from the consequences of NCC are subject to limiting illnesses such as intractable headaches and seizures that hamper their well-being and limit their productivity as active community members. NCC is a preventable and treatable infection. Programs and research designed to eradicate NCC in developing countries would lead to the elimination of a sizable number of epilepsy cases and the associated human suffering.

REFERENCES

1. M.E. Cruz, B.S. Schoenberg, R. Ruales, P. Barberis, J. Proano, F. Bossano, et al. Pilot study to detect neurologic disease in Ecuador among a population with a high prevalence of endemic goiter. Neuroepidemiology 4:108–116, 1985.

2. S.C. Li, B.S. Schoenberg, C.C. Wang, X.M. Cheng, S.S. Zhou, and C.L. Bolis. Epidemiology of epilepsy in the urban population of the People's Republic of China. Epilepsia 26:391–394, 1985.

3. B.O. Osuntokun, B.S. Schoenberg, V.A. Nottidge et al. Research protocol for measuring the prevalence of neurologic disorders in developing countries. Neuroepidemiology 1:143–153, 1982.

4. M.E. Cruz, P. Barberis, and B.S. Schoenberg. Epidemiology of Epilepsy. In: Neurology, Poeck, K., Freund, H.J. and Ganshirt, H. eds. Springer-Verlag: Berlin-Heidelberg, pp.229–239, 1986.

5. P. Jallon. Epilepsy in developing countries. Epilepsia 38(10): 1143–1151, 1997.

6. P. R. M. de Bittencourt, B. Adamolekum, N. Bharucha, A. Carpio, O.H. Cassio, M.A. Dumas, et al. Epilepsy in the Tropics: I. Epidemiology, Socioeconomic Risk Factors, and Etiology. Epilepsia 37(11):1121–1127, 1996.

7. E. M. Basch, M.E. Cruz, D. Tapia, and A. Cruz. Prevalence of epilepsy in a migrant population near Quito, Ecuador Neuroepidemiology 16: 94–98, 1997.

8. N. Karaagac. S.N. Yeni, M. Senocak, M. Bozluolcay, F.K. Savrun, H. Ozdemir, et al. Prevalence of epilepsy in Silivri, a rural area of Turkey. Epilepsia 40(5):637–642, 1999.

9. R. Tekle-Haimanot, L. Forsgreen, and J. Ekstedt. Incidence of epilepsy in rural central Ethiopia. Epilepsia 38 (5): 541–546, 1997.

10. H. Aziz, S.M. Ali, P. Frances, M. I. Khan, and K.Z. Hasan. Epilepsy in Pakistan: A population-based epidemiologic study. Epilepsia 35(5): 950–958, 1994.

11. N. Senanayake and G.C. Roman. Epidemiology of epilepsy in developing countries. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 71(2): 247–258, 1993.



The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement