The following HTML text is provided to enhance online
readability. Many aspects of typography translate only awkwardly to HTML.
Please use the page image
as the authoritative form to ensure accuracy.
Neurological, Psychiatric, and Developmental Disorders: Meeting the Challenge in the Developing World
Such a program should involve at least three operational components:
Adaptation of existing screening and diagnostic tools for bipolardisorder, with a view to accounting for differences in the localpresentation of the disorder and making them suitable for use bypersonnel in the primary care setting.
Pharmacological treatment, with specific guidelines for symptom controlin acute episodes, maintenance of stabilization and prevention ofrelapse, and means of ensuring adherence to the treatment protocol.
Mobilization of family and community support, including providingeducation on the nature of the disorder and its treatment, involvingthe family in simple problem-solving training, and involving thelocal community in providing a supportive and nonstigmatizing environment.
1. F. Adams. The extant works of Aretaeus, the Cappadocian. London, The Syndenham Society 1856. Reprinted in the Classics of Medicine Library Series. Gryphon Editions Inc.: Birmingham, AL, 1990.
2. E. Kraepelin. Manic-depressive insanity and paranoia. E&S Livingstone: Edinburgh, 1921.
3. C. Friddle, R. Koskela, K. Ranade, J. Hebert, M. Cargill, C.D. Clark, M. McInnis, S. Simpson, F. McMahon, O.C. Stine, D. Meyers, J. Xu, D. MacKinnon, T. Swift-Scanlan, K. Jamison, S. Folstein, M. Daly, L. Kruglyak, T. Marr, J.R. DePaulo, and D. Botstein. Full-genome scan for linkage in 50 families segregating the bipolar affective disease phenotype. American Journal of Human Genetics 66:205–215, 2000.
4. D.H.R. Blackwood, L. He, S.W. Morris, A. McLean, C. Whitton, M. Thomson, et al. A locus for bipolar affective disorder on chromosome 4p. Nature Genetics 12:427–430, 1996.
5. E.I. Ginns. A genome-wide search for chromosomal loci linked to bipolar affective disorder in the Old Order Amish. Nature Genetics 12:431–435, 1996.
6. N.B. Freimer, et al. Genetic mapping using haplotype, association and linkage methods suggests a locus for severe bipolar disorder (BPI) at 18q22–q23. Nature Genetics 12:436–441, 1996.
7. A.L. Stoll, M. Tohen, Baldessarini, D.C. Goodwin, S. Stein, S. Katz, et al. Shifts in the diagnostic frequencies of schizophrenia and affective disorders from 1972 through 1998; A combined analysis from four North American psychiatric hospitals. American Journal of Psychiatry 151:130–132, 1994.
8. World Health Organization. The ICD-10 Classification of Mental and Behavioural Disorders. Clinical descriptions and diagnostic guidelines. World Health Organization: Geneva, 1992.
9. American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition. American Psychiatric Association: Washington D.C., 1994.