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Page i A Review of the New Initiatives at the NASA Ames Research Center Summary of a Workshop CHARLES W. WESSNER, EDITOR Board on Science, Technology, and Economic Policy Policy and Global Affairs National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C.
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Page ii NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20418 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This study was supported by Contract No. NASW-99037-Task 103 between the National Academy of Sciences and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project. International Standard Book Number 0-309-07409-6 Limited copies are available from Board on Science, Technology, and Economic Policy, National Research Council, 1055 Thomas Jefferson Street, N.W., Suite 2014, Washington, D.C. 20007; 202-334-2200. Additional copies of this report are available from National Academy Press, 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W., Lockbox 285, Washington, D.C. 20055; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area); Internet, http://www.nap.edu Printed in the United States of America Copyright 2001 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
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Page iii THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES National Academy of Sciences National Academy of Engineering Institute of Medicine National Research Council The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. William A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts and Dr. William A. Wulf are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council.
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Page v Steering Committee for Government-Industry Partnerships for the Development of New Technologies * Gordon Moore, Chair Chairman Emeritus Intel Corporation M. Kathy Behrens Managing Partner Robertson Stephens Investment Management and STEP Board Michael Borrus Managing Director Petkevich & Partners, LLP Iain M. Cockburn Professor of Finance and Economics Boston University Kenneth Flamm Dean Rusk Chair in International Affairs LBJ School of Public Affairs University of Texas at Austin James F. Gibbons Professor of Engineering Stanford University W. Clark McFadden Partner Dewey Ballantine Burton J. McMurtry General Partner Technology Venture Investors William J. Spencer, Vice-Chair Chairman Emeritus SEMATECH and STEP Board Mark B. Myers Senior Vice-President, retired Xerox Corporation and STEP Board Richard Nelson George Blumenthal Professor of International and Public Affairs Columbia University Edward E. Penhoet Dean, School of Public Health University of California at Berkeley and STEP Board Charles Trimble Vice-Chairman Trimble Navigation John P. Walker Chairman and Chief Executive Officer Axys Pharmaceuticals, Inc. Patrick Windham President, Windham Consulting; and Lecturer, Stanford University * As of February 2001.
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Page vi Project Staff * Charles W. Wessner Study Director Alan H. Anderson Consultant McAlister T. Clabaugh Program Associate David E. Dierksheide Program Associate Contributors ** David B. Audretsch Ameritech Chair of Economic Development Director, Institute for Development Strategies Indiana University Michael I. Luger Professor of Public Policy Analysis, Planning, and Business University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill *As of February 2001. **Biographies of the contributors are included in Annex B.
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Page vii For the National Research Council (NRC), this project was overseen by the Board on Science, Technology and Economic Policy (STEP), a standing board of the NRC established by the National Academies of Sciences and Engineering and the Institute of Medicine in 1991. The mandate of the STEP Board is to integrate understanding of scientific, technological, and economic elements in the formulation of national policies to promote the economic well-being of the United States. A distinctive characteristic of STEP's approach is its frequent interactions with public and private-sector decision makers. STEP bridges the disciplines of business management, engineering, economics, and the social sciences to bring diverse expertise to bear on pressing public policy questions. The members of the STEP Board * and the NRC staff are listed below: Dale Jorgenson, Chair Frederic Eaton Abbe Professor of Economics Harvard University M. Kathy Behrens Managing Partner Robertson Stephens Investment Management Vinton G. Cerf Senior Vice-President WorldCom Bronwyn Hall Professor of Economics University of California at Berkeley James Heckman Henry Schultz Distinguished Service Professor of Economics University of Chicago Ralph Landau Consulting Professor of Economics Stanford University Richard Levin President Yale University William J. Spencer, Vice-Chair Chairman Emeritus SEMATECH David T. Morgenthaler Founding Partner Morgenthaler Mark B. Myers Senior Vice-President, retired Xerox Corporation Roger Noll Morris M. Doyle Centennial Professor of Economics Stanford University Edward E. Penhoet Dean, School of Public Health University of California at Berkeley William Raduchel Chief Technology Officer AOL Time Warner Alan Wm. Wolff Managing Partner Dewey Ballantine * As of February 2001.
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Page viii STEP Staff * Stephen A. Merrill Executive Director Philip Aspden Senior Program Officer Camille M. Collett Program Associate David E. Dierksheide Program Associate Charles W. Wessner Program Director Craig M. Schultz Research Associate McAlister T. Clabaugh Program Associate *As of February 2001.
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Page ix National Research Council Board on Science, Technology, and Economic Policy Sponsors The National Research Council gratefully acknowledges the support of the following sponsors: National Aeronautics and Space Administration Office of the Director, Defense Research & Engineering National Science Foundation U.S. Department of Energy Office of Naval Research National Institutes of Health National Institute of Standards and Technology Sandia National Laboratories Electric Power Research Institute International Business Machines Kulicke and Soffa Industries Merck and Company Milliken Industries Motorola Nortel Proctor and Gamble Silicon Valley Group, Incorporated Advanced Micro Devices Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the project sponsors.
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Page xi Contents FOREWORD 1 I. PREFACE 5 II. OVERVIEW AND SUMMARY OF THE WORKSHOP 15 III. INTRODUCTION 23 IV. PROCEEDINGS Welcome Henry McDonald, Ames Research Center 35 Opening Remarks Zoe Lofgren, U.S. House of Representatives 36 Panel I: A Technology Vision for NASA Moderator: Edward Penhoet, University of California at Berkeley and Chiron Corporation 38 NASA's Technology Strategy Sam Venneri, NASA 38 Ames' Technology Strategy Henry McDonald, Ames Research Center 43
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Page xii Panel II: Research Parks: Concept, History, and Metrics Moderator: David B. Audretsch, Indiana University 47 Presenter: Michael I. Luger, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill 47 Discussant: Susan Hackwood, California Council on Science and Technology and UC Riverside 53 Panel III: The Ames Research Park: Goals and Metrics Moderator: Patrick Windham, Stanford University and Windham Consulting 57 The Ames Strategic Plan William Berry, Ames Research Center 57 Partnering with The University of California at Santa Cruz M.R.C. Greenwood, University of California at Santa Cruz 64 The Role of Lockheed Martin William Ballhaus, Lockheed Martin Corporation 66 The Role of Carnegie Mellon Duane Adams, Carnegie Mellon University James Morris, Carnegie Mellon University 69 Discussants: Robert Wilson, University of Texas at Austin Edward Penhoet, University of California at Berkeley and Chiron Corporation 74 Panel IV: SBIR Initiatives and Mission Objectives Moderator: Burton McMurtry, Technology Venture Investors 78 In-Q-Tel: A “Nonprofit Venture Capital Fund” Gilman G. Louie, In-Q-Tel 78 An “Enterprise Fund” for NASA Robert L. Norwood, NASA 81 A Venture Capital Perspective on Research Parks Kathy Behrens, Robertson Stephens Investment Management 83
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Page xiii Panel V: Ames as an Entrepreneurial Center: Opportunities and Challenges Moderator: Mark Myers, Xerox Corporation 85 Commercializing Technology Carolina Blake, Ames Research Center 85 The Experience of One Start-up Company Elizabeth Downing, 3D Technology Laboratories 87 Discussant: Jim Turner, House Science Committee 89 Concluding Remarks Henry McDonald, Ames Research Center 92 Boxes within the Summary Report Box A. Benefits of High-Technology Industries 9 Box B. The Notion of Success 28 Box C. Potential Risks and Guidance for Parks 30 Box D. Regional Advantage in a Global Economy 31 V. RESEARCH PAPERS Science and Technology Parks at the Millennium: Concept, History, and Metrics Michael I. Luger, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill 95 The Prospects for a Technology Park at Ames: A New Economy Model for Industry-Government Partnership? David B. Audretsch, Indiana University 112 VI. ANNEX A. Ames White Paper on the Research Park 137 B. Biographies of Contributors 141 C. Participants List 143 D. Bibliography 147
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