Page 173

Index

A

Accelerated Strategic Computing Initiative (ASCI), 124
Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS), 119
Accelerator science, 152 societal benefits from, 74
“Active engagement,” in physics education, 98-100
Active Learning Physics System, 100
Advanced materials, 123. See also New materials
Advanced undergraduate physics programs, 101
AFM. See Atomic force microscopy
Agricultural revolution, 131
ALICE experiment, 76
All-weather vision, 127
American Association of Physics Teachers, 96
American Institute of Physics, 96
American Physical Society, 96
Amplifiers, 138-139 optical, 141
AMS. See Accelerator mass spectrometry
Anisotropy, 63
Antimatter, 68 and matter, 78
Areal density limit, 143
Artificial atoms, 147
Artificial nanoscale structures, 31-33 fabrication, 31-32 nanoscale and molecular electronics, 33 self-assembly, 32
ASCI. See Accelerated Strategic Computing Initiative
Astrophysics, 13, 45 neutrino, 81 nuclear, 64-67 radiation transport advances in, 3
Atmospheric research, 121 Atom cooling and trapping, 22-24
Atomic clocks, 25-26
Atomic force microscopy (AFM), 143
Atomic physicists, 12
Atomic physics, 19, 129
Atomic systems, many-body challenges in, 3
Atoms, 11 manipulating, 22-28
Axions, 61, 78

B

B mesons, 77-78 b-quark, 77
Ballistic missile defense, 122
Baryon-number conservation, 68
Basic research Department of Defense support of, 129-130 federal government role in support of, 157-161 security and, 125
BEC. See Bose-Einstein condensates
Big Bang, 4, 55, 63
Biochemical networks, 4
Bioinformatics, 4, 50-51
Biological elastics, 14
Biological systems, many-body challenges in, 3
Biological weapons of mass destruction, 123


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Page 173 Index A Accelerated Strategic Computing Initiative (ASCI), 124 Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS), 119 Accelerator science, 152 societal benefits from, 74 “Active engagement,” in physics education, 98-100 Active Learning Physics System, 100 Advanced materials, 123. See also New materials Advanced undergraduate physics programs, 101 AFM. See Atomic force microscopy Agricultural revolution, 131 ALICE experiment, 76 All-weather vision, 127 American Association of Physics Teachers, 96 American Institute of Physics, 96 American Physical Society, 96 Amplifiers, 138-139 optical, 141 AMS. See Accelerator mass spectrometry Anisotropy, 63 Antimatter, 68 and matter, 78 Areal density limit, 143 Artificial atoms, 147 Artificial nanoscale structures, 31-33 fabrication, 31-32 nanoscale and molecular electronics, 33 self-assembly, 32 ASCI. See Accelerated Strategic Computing Initiative Astrophysics, 13, 45 neutrino, 81 nuclear, 64-67 radiation transport advances in, 3 Atmospheric research, 121 Atom cooling and trapping, 22-24 Atomic clocks, 25-26 Atomic force microscopy (AFM), 143 Atomic physicists, 12 Atomic physics, 19, 129 Atomic systems, many-body challenges in, 3 Atoms, 11 manipulating, 22-28 Axions, 61, 78 B B mesons, 77-78 b-quark, 77 Ballistic missile defense, 122 Baryon-number conservation, 68 Basic research Department of Defense support of, 129-130 federal government role in support of, 157-161 security and, 125 BEC. See Bose-Einstein condensates Big Bang, 4, 55, 63 Biochemical networks, 4 Bioinformatics, 4, 50-51 Biological elastics, 14 Biological systems, many-body challenges in, 3 Biological weapons of mass destruction, 123

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Page 174 Biology, physics in, 3-4, 38, 45-51 Biomechanics, 46, 48 Biomedical sciences, 107-115 diagnosis, 108-113 therapy, 107-108 understanding the body, 113-115 Biomedical technologies, 123 Biophysics, 10 Biotechnology, 13 Black holes, 13, 67-68 dynamics of, 64 evaporation of, 84 horizon of, 67 Bose-Einstein condensates (BEC), 20 gaseous, 25-27 Brookhaven National Laboratory, 45 C Calcium ions, 49 Cancer therapy, radiation transport advances in, 3 CAT scans, 13, 74 CERN, 132 Channel biophysics, 50 Charge carriers, 137 Charges, 76 Chemical dynamics, 74 Chemical weapons of mass destruction, 123 Chemistry. See also Biochemical networks quantum-controlled, 3 Chromophors, 48 Climate and weather modeling, 124 Climate systems, 117 global, 123 Clusters of galaxies, 61 CMR. See Colossal magnetoresistance Coastal upwellings, 51-52, 54 COBE detector, 60 Collaboration, international, 164-165 Colliders. See Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider Colloids, 40-41 Colossal magnetoresistance (CMR), 146 Communications, 127 electronics for, 122 fiber-optic, 138-144, 152 Complex systems, 3-4, 37-54 Earth and its surroundings, 51-54 high-energy-density systems, 43-45 nonequilibrium behavior of matter, 38-41 physics in biology, 3-4, 45-51 turbulence in fluids, plasmas, and gases, 41-43 understanding, 154 Compound semiconductor structures, 142 Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty, 123 Computation, quantum, 3, 10, 12, 27 Computational physics, 137 Computational sciences, 123, 127 Computerized tomography, 110 Condensed-matter physicists, 12 Condensed-matter physics, 9, 19 many-body challenges in, 3 Continental crust flows, 52 Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility, 12 Cooperative research and development agreements (CRADAs), 169 Cosmic jets, 13 Cosmic microwave background, 152 Cosmic rays, ultrahigh-energy, 63 Cosmogenic nuclei, 119 Cosmological constant, 62 Cosmology, 45, 57, 61-64, 155 Council for Undergraduate Research, 101 CP symmetry, 76-78 Crack propagation, 39-40 CRADAs. See Cooperative research and development agreements Cryptography, 122 quantum, 3, 34-35 Crystallography, x-ray, 46, 159 Cuprates, 29 Cyclotrons, 13, 73 D Dark energy, 4, 155 Dark mass-energy, 62 Dark matter, 4, 59-60, 155 DARPA. See Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency Databases, experimental and bibliographic, 171-172 Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), 129-130 Dense WDM (DWDM), 139 Density limit, areal, 143 Department of Defense (DOD), 122, 127-130

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Page 175    physics and, 127-129 support of basic research, 129-130 Department of Energy, 122-127 global nuclear dangers, 123-124 Office of Defense Programs, 123 preserving laboratory quality, 125-127 security and basic research, 125 Deuterium, primeval abundance of, 62 Diagnosis, impact of physics on, 108-113 Dielectric constants, new materials with high, 137 Differential interference contrast, 112 Discovery foundations of, 151-153 scientific priorities and opportunities, 153-156 Dispersion-shifted fiber, 141 DNA, 12 computers based on, 14 DOD. See Department of Defense Down quark, 70 DRAMs (dynamic random access memory), 136 Ductile flows, 52 DWDM. See Dense WDM E Earth as a dynamo, 44 and its surroundings, 51-54 Earthquake dynamics, 37, 51-52 Economy, 131-148 information storage, 144-148 integrated circuits, 135-138 optical-fiber communication, 138-144 Education in physics, 91-106, 161-162 graduate, 103-106 K-12, 94-96 undergraduate, 96-102 Einstein's relativity, general theory of, 64, 67 Elastics, biological, 14 Electricity, Maxwell's theory of, 9 Electrocardiograms, 115 Electroencephalograms, 115 Electromagnetic force, 64 Electromagnetic interactions, 152 Electromagnetic waves, 58 Electron energy levels, 33 Electron microscopy, 19, 159 Electronic states, laser control of, 27-28 Electronics for communications, 122 molecular, 33 Electrons, 11, 14 manipulating, 22-28 Electroweak forces, 5, 72-75, 156 Electroweak interactions, 72, 80 Elementary particles, 5 Emulsions, 40 Enabling technologies, key, 148 Energy levels, electron, 33 Energy production, and the environment, 120-121 Entangled states, 34 engineering of, 33-36 Environment, 116-121 energy production and, 120-121 improving, 117-119 monitoring, 117-119 the ocean-atmosphere system, 116-117 Environmental protection and remediation, 123 Erbium fiber amplifiers, 138 Eruption prediction, Pinatubo and, 53 Evolution of the universe, 4-5, 55-69 new links, 61-68 new windows on, 56-61 questions and opportunities, 68-69 Exploration of the universe, next steps in, 56 F Facilities, large, 164-165 Failure modes, 39-40 Federal science agencies, 7, 170-171 peer review, 7, 170-171 program management, 7, 170 Fiber amplifiers, 138-139 dispersion-shifted, 141 optics, 108, 159 Fiber-optic communication, 152 Field-effect transistor (FET), 135 Fission, 9 nuclear, 152 Fluid dynamics, 118 Fluids nonlinear phenomena in, 3 turbulence in, 3, 41-43

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Page 176 fMRI. See Functional magnetic resonance imaging Fractional quantum Hall effect, 31 Fractures, 39-40 Fullerenes, 12 Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), 111-112 Fundamental forces, 64 Fundamental interactions, 64 Fundamental laws and symmetries, 70-88 hidden symmetries and the standard model, 71-78 the length scales of nature, 86-88 new physics for a new era, 79-86 Fundamental particles, 55 Fusion inertial confinement, 65 nuclear, 152 Fusion reactors, 12 Future priorities and recommendations, 151-172 investment, education, and national security, 157-167 new era of discovery, 151-156 partnerships, federal science agencies, and physics information, 168-172 G Galaxies, 61 clusters of, 61 GALLEX detector, 59 Gamma-ray bursts, 13, 61 high-energy, 64 relativistic jets in, 69 Gas disks, 13 Gaseous Bose-Einstein condensates, 25-27 Gases, turbulence in, 41-43 Gating, of ion channels, 49 Gauge invariance, 72 General theory of relativity, 64, 67, 152 Giant magnetoresistance (GMR) materials, 31, 144 Global climate dynamics, 123 Global nuclear dangers, 123-124 Global Positioning System (GPS), 15 NAVSTAR, 52 Gluons, 86 GMR. See Giant magnetoresistance materials GPS. See Global Positioning System Graduate education, 103-105 employment of Ph.D.'s, 104-105 implications of changing opportunities, 105 supply, 103-104 Grand unification, 80 Grand unified scale, 80, 83 Grand unified theory, 80 Granular materials, 39 Gravitational physics, 13 Gravitational waves, 4, 58-59, 61 Gravity, 5, 55, 83-86, 156 quantum, 64, 68 Groups, supporting small, 163-164 H Hall effect, fractional quantum, 31 Health and biomedical sciences, 107-115 diagnosis, 108-113 therapy, 107-108 understanding the body, 113-115 Heavy nuclei, 14 Heterostructures, magnetic, 146 Hidden symmetries CP symmetry, 76-78 electroweak force, 72-75 matter and antimatter, 78 and the standard model, 71-78 strong force, 75-76 Higgs boson, 73 High-density magnetic storage media, 74 High-energy colliders, 5 High-energy-density physics, 123 systems, 38, 43-45 High-energy gamma-ray bursts, 64 High redshift, 64 High-temperature superconductors, 4, 12, 28-29 HTML (Hypertext Markup Language), 132 HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol), 132 Hubble expansion, 152 Hubble Space Telescope, 58 Human genome, 154 Hydrodynamics, 123

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Page 177 I Imaging magnetic resonance, 112 ultrasound, 13 IMB. See Irvine-Michigan-Brookhaven experiment Industrial revolution, 131 Inertial confinement fusion, 65 Inferometry, 25 Inflation, 2, 63 Information age, 131-148. See also Bioinformatics; Physics information; Quantum information; Qubit (quantum bit of information) information storage, 144-148 integrated circuits, 135-138 optical-fiber communication, 138-144 Information revolution, 131 Information technology, use of, 8, 171-172 Infrared microscopy, 112 Integrated circuits, 135-138 Intelligence gathering, 127 Interactions electromagnetic, 152 electroweak, 72, 80 fundamental, 64 weak, 152 Internal combustion engines, efficiency of, 124 International collaboration, 6-7, 164-165 Internet, 132 Internet networks, 138 Introductory University Physics Project (IUPP), 99 Investigators, supporting single, 163-164 Investing in physics, 6, 157-161 Ion channels, 48-50 Ionizing radiation, 107 Irvine-Michigan-Brookhaven (IMB) experiment, 59 IUPP. See Introductory University Physics Project K K-12 physics education, 94-96 K mesons, 76 Key enabling technologies, 148 Kinesin, 114 L Laboratories preserving quality in, 125-127 recreating the early universe in, 77 simulation of stars in, 66 Large facilities, 164-165 Large Hadron Collider (LHC), 73, 75-76 Large-scale structure, 3, 154 Lasers, 152 control of electronic states, 27-28 cooling, 22 guidance, 122 keratotomy, 108 scanning microscopy, 112-113 Lattice gauge theory, 76 Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 45, 123 Laws and symmetries, 70-88 hidden symmetries and the standard model, 71-78 the length scales of nature, 86-88 new physics for a new era, 79-86 Length scales of nature, 86-88 LEP facility, 75 Leptons, families of, 79 LHC. See Large Hadron Collider LIGO detector, 57 Long-range force, 64 Long-range observation, 127 Los Alamos National Laboratory, 4, 123, 172 Low-temperature superconductors, 31 M Magnetic heterostructures and nanostructures, 146 Magnetic materials, 12 Magnetic resonance, 159 Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), 12, 74, 152 functional, 111-112 Magnetic storage media, 10 high-density, 74 Magnetic substorms, 51, 54 Magnetism, 146 Maxwell's theory of, 9 Magnetoresistance colossal, 146 giant, 31, 144 Magnetoresistive materials, 146

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Page 178 Management, in federal science agencies, 170 Manifest symmetry, 71 Manipulating atoms and electrons, 22-28 achieving and using the quantum regime, 24-25 atom cooling and trapping, 22-24 gaseous Bose-Einstein condensates, 25-27 laser control of electronic states, 27-28 Many-body challenges, 3 quantum, 154 Mass-energy of the universe, 4, 13 Mass spectroscopy, 159 Massive neutrinos, 81 Materials. See Giant magnetoresistance materials; Granular materials; New materials Materials characterization, 74 Materials synthesis, 4 Matter. See also Condensed matter; Dark matter and antimatter, 78 nonequilibrium behavior of, 38-41 Matter-antimatter symmetry, 68 MBE. See Molecular-beam epitaxy Measurement instruments, quantum-limited, 27 MEMS. See Microelectromechanical systems MEMS for optical switching and high-density storage, 143 Mesons, 14 Metabolic energy, 49 Metal oxide semiconductor FETs, 135-136 Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS), 143 Microelectronics, 9 Microprocessors, 136 Microscopy. See also Videomicroscopy atomic force, 143 electron, 19 infrared, 112 laser scanning, 112-113 scanning atomic probe, 19 scanning tunneling, 20-21 two-photon, 113 Mirror reflection of space, 76 Missile defense, 127 Molecular-beam epitaxy (MBE), 31 Molecular electronics, 33 nanoscale structures and, 33 Molecular geometry, 4 Molecular motors, 14, 115 Molecular physicists, 12 Molecular physics, 129 Moore's law, 136 MRI. See Magnetic resonance imaging MSW effect, 82 N Nanocrystals, 147 superlattices of, 147 Nanoparticles, 147 Nanoscale physics, 31 Nanoscale structures and molecular electronics, 33 artificial, 31-33 building blocks for, 147 fabrication of, 31-32 magnetic, 146 self-assembly of, 32 Nanotechnology, 10, 127 Nanotubes, 33 National Ignition Facility (NIF), 45, 124 National Institutes of Health (NIH), 14, 115 National laboratories, 7, 10, 122 See also Partnerships National security, 7, 122-130, 166-167 Department of Defense, 127-130 Department of Energy, 122-127 Nature fundamental forces of, 5 length scales of, 86-88 unifying the forces of, 156 NAVSTAR, 52 Neutrino masses, 79 Neutrinos, 11, 58-59, 61, 70, 80-83 astrophysics of, 81 massive, 81 oscillations in, 5 Neutron sources, 19 Neutrons, 14 as probes, 23 New energy sources, 123 New links, 61-68 black holes, 67-68 cosmology, 61-64 nuclear astrophysics, 64-67 New materials, 4, 28-31 creating, 155

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Page 179    ferroelectric, 137 fullerenes, 12 with high dielectric constants, 137 high-temperature superconductors, 12 magnetic, 12 magnetoresistive, 146 New physics, 79-86 grand unification, 80 gravity, 83-86 neutrinos, 80-83 new symmetries, 79 the Planck scale, 83 string theory, 83, 86 New tools, for observation in the quantum regime, 20-22 New windows on the universe, 56-61 electromagnetic waves, 58 gravitational waves, 58-59, 61 neutrinos, 58-59, 61 NIF. See National Ignition Facility Night vision, 127 NIH. See National Institutes of Health Nonequilibrium behavior of matter, 38-41 colloids, 40-41 failure modes, 39-40 foams and emulsions, 40 fracture and crack propagation, 39-40 glasses, 39 granular materials, 39 nonequilibrium solids, 39 Nonequilibrium processes, 4 Nonlinear phenomena, 3 Nuclear astrophysics, 64-67 Nuclear fission and fusion, 152 Nuclear forces, 64 strong, 3, 156 Nuclear magnetic resonance, 12, 46 Nuclear physics, 11, 123, 127 Nuclear power, 9, 120 Nuclear stockpiles, aging, 122 Nuclear systems, many-body challenges in, 3 Nuclei, heavy, 14 Nucleosynthesis, 65 O Ocean-atmosphere system, 116-117 Office of Defense Programs, 7, 123, 167 Omega laser, 66, 124 Optical amplifiers, 141 Optical-fiber communication, 138-144 Optical physicists, 12 Optical tweezers, 10, 14, 114 P Particle colliders, 9 Partnerships, 7, 168-170 Pattern recognition, 53, 127 Peer review, in federal science agencies, 7, 170-171 Permeation, of ion channels, 49 Phase transitions, 50 Photobiology, 48 Photovoltaic cells, 120 Physics. See also Biophysics and the Department of Defense, 127-129 applying to biology, 154-155 atomic, 19, 129 big, small, 162-165 computational, 137 condensed-matter, 3, 9, 19 elementary-particle, 62 gravitational, 13 high-energy-density, 123 information, 8, 12-122 molecular, 129 nanoscale, 31 new, 79-86 nuclear, 11, 123, 127 plasma, 129 quantum, 129 women in, 93 Physics and society, 89-148, 157-167 economy and the information age, 131-148 environment, 116-121 health and biomedical sciences, 107-115 investing in physics, 157-161 national security, 122-130, 166-167 Physics education, 6, 91-106, 161-162 graduate, 103-106 K-12 physics, 94-96 undergraduate, 96-102 Physics frontiers, 17-87 complex systems, 3-4, 37-54 fundamental laws and symmetries, 70-88 quantum manipulation and new materials, 3, 19-36

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Page 180    structure and evolution of the universe, 4-5, 55-69 Physics in biology, 3-4, 38, 45-51 biomechanics, 46, 48 ion channels, 48-50 photobiology, 48 structural biology, 46 theoretical biology and bioinformatics, 50-51 Physics information, 8, 171-172 Physics research, 168-172 federal science agencies, 7, 170-171 partnerships, 7, 168-170 physics information, 8, 171-172 Physics Teaching Resource Agents (PTRA), 96 Pinatubo, Mount, and eruption prediction, 53 Pions, 76 Planck length-scale, 83 Plasma physics, 129 Plasmas nonlinear phenomena in, 3 turbulence in, 3, 41-43 Population dynamics, 53 Positron emission tomography (PET) scans, 74, 111 Potassium ions, 49 Program management, in federal science agencies, 170 Protection, environmental, 123 Protein folding, 4, 14, 46-47 Proteins, 113 crystallography using, 74 Protons, 14 decay of, 79 radiography using, 124 PTRA. See Physics Teaching Resource Agents Pulsars, 13, 61 Q QCD. See Quantum chromodynamics Quantum chromodynamics (QCD), 76 strong interaction of, 80 Quantum computation, 3, 10, 12, 27 Quantum-controlled chemistry, 3 Quantum cryptography, 3, 34-35 Quantum dots, 147 Quantum entanglement, 27 Quantum gravity, 64, 68 Quantum information, and the engineering of entangled states, 33-36 Quantum-limited measurement instruments, 27 Quantum manipulation, 3, 19-36 artificial nanoscale structures, 31-33 manipulating atoms and electrons, 22-28 new materials from, 4, 28-31 new tools for observation in the quantum regime, 20-22 Quantum many-body challenges, 154 Quantum mechanics, 11, 27, 152 Quantum physics, 129 Quantum regime, achieving and using, 24-25 Quantum soup, 55 Quantum systems, entangled, 34 Quantum technologies, 3 developing, 154 Quark dynamics, 9 Quarks, 11, 70, 86 families of, 79 Quasars, 13, 61 hugely luminous, 67 Qubit (quantum bit of information), 34 R Radiation, ionizing, 107 Radiation transport, 3, 107 Radioactive labels, 109 Radioactive tracers, 159 Radioimmune assay, 109 Radioisotopes, 74 Radiotherapy, 107 Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), 12, 45 Relativistic jets, in gamma-ray bursts, 69 Relativity general theory of, 64, 67, 152 special theory of, 152 Remediation, environmental, 123 Renewable energy, 120 Research. See Basic research, single-investigator research, small-group research Research Experiences for Teachers program, 96

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Page 181 Research Experiences for Undergraduates (REU), 102 RHIC. See Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider Rossi x-ray Timing Explorer, 58 S s-quark, 77 SAGE detector, 59 Sandia National Laboratories, 123 SAR. See Synthetic aperture radar SAR interferograms, 52 Satellites, reconnaissance, 122 Scanning atomic probe microscope, 19 Scanning tunneling microscope, 20-21 Science agencies, federal, 170-171 Scientific priorities and opportunities, 153-156 applying physics to biology, 154-155 creating new materials, 155 developing quantum technologies, 154 exploring the universe, 155-156 understanding complex systems, 154 unifying the forces of nature, 156 Security, and basic research, 125 Self-organized criticality, 52 Semiconductors, 9 compound structures of, 142 Silicon semiconductor industry, 135 Single-investigator research, 6, 163-164 SLC. See Stanford Linear Accelerator Center facility Small-group research, 6, 163-164 SNO. See Sudbury Neutrino Observatory SNS. See Spallation Neutron Source Sodium ions, 49 Solar thermal energy, 120 Solar wind, 54 Spallation Neutron Source (SNS), 23 Special theory of relativity, 152 SPECT (single-photon-emission computerized tomography), 110 Spectroscopy, mass, 159 Spin-polarized tunneling, 146 SPIRES. See Stanford Public Information Retrieval System Stability, thermal, 146 “Standard candle” calibration, 62 Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLC) facility, 75 Stanford Public Information Retrieval System (SPIRES), 133 States electronic, 27-28 engineering of, 33-36 entangled, 34 String theory, 83, 86, 156 Strong nuclear force, 3, 5, 71, 75-76, 156 Structural biology, 46 Structure of the universe, 4-5, 55-69 large-scale, 3 new links, 61-68 new windows on the universe, 56-61 questions and opportunities, 68-69 Substorms, magnetic, 51, 54 Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO), 81 Super-Kamiokande detector, 59, 81 Superclusters, 61 Superconductors, 9, 75, 152 high-temperature, 4, 28-29 low-temperature, 31 Superfluids, 152 Superlattices, nanocrystalline, 147 Supernovas, 58, 62 Superpartners, 79 Superposition, 34 Supersymmetry, 79 Surface characterization, 74 Surface electron density, 20 Symmetries. See also Laws and symmetries; Supersymmetry hidden, and the standard model, 71-78 manifest, 71 new, 79 Synchrotron radiation, 113 Synthetic aperture radar (SAR), 52 T Theoretical biology, 50-51 Therapy, impact of physics on, 107-108 Thermal stability, 146 Thin-film coatings, 120 Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS), 94-95 Tomography, computerized, 110 Tools, 73 new windows on the universe, 56-61 for observation in the quantum regime, 20-22 Top quark, 5, 70

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Page 182 Tracers, 118 radioactive, 159 Transistors, 152 Tunneling scanning, 20-21 spin-polarized, 146 Turbulence, 3, 38 in fluids, plasmas, and gases, 41-43 suppressing to improve fusion, 42 Turbulent fluid flows, 127 Tweezers, optical, 10, 14, 114 Two-photon microscopy, 113 U Ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays, 63 Ultrasound imaging, 13 Undergraduate physics, 96-102 advanced programs, 101 introductory curricula, 98-100 research experiences for, 102 Unified theory, 63, 152, 156 Unifying the forces of nature, 156 Universal force, 64 Universe as a laboratory, 4 as spatially flat, 68 exploration of, 56, 155-156 understanding the nature of, 157 Universities. See Partnerships Up quark, 70 Upwellings, coastal, 51 V Videomicroscopy, 112 Viruses, 113 W W bosons, 86 Wavelength division multiplexing (WDM), 139 WDM. See Wavelength division multiplexing Weak charges, 71 Weak currents, 71 Weak force, 71 Weapons of mass destruction, chemical and biological, 123 Wind energy, 120 World Wide Web, 9, 132 X X-ray crystallography, 46, 159 X-ray sources, 19, 61 X rays, 14, 109, 152 Z Z bosons, 86 Z-pinch device, 124